new!!→【ガチ英文法解説】カテゴリ創設! 元鉄緑会社員兼講師の英語・ゲームブログです。ツイッターの相互フォローと,英文法・英単語の質問を(ガチで)募集中です。質問・ミス指摘はコメント欄か,こちらにお願いします→ kfreynya@gmail.com

Asgard Stories 23:イズンの掠奪(2)

Asgard Stories

ロキが巨人スィアチにイズンを攫って来いと脅されたAsgard Stories 22の続きです。

The Stealing of Iduna - II

The goddess Iduna, whom Loki was to tempt away out of Asgard, was the dearest of them all. She was the fair goddess of spring and of youth, and all the Æsir loved her. Her garden was the loveliest spot, with all sorts of bright, sweet flowers, birds singing by day and night, little chattering brooks under the great trees, and everything happy and fresh. The gods loved to go and sit with Iduna, and rest in her beautiful garden, within the walls of Asgard.


was toはいわゆる「助動詞のbe to」で,「ぎ・よ・う・か・い」or「か・ぎ・よ・う・い」で「義務」「予定」「運命」「可能」「意図」の5つの意味があります。ここは「予定」で「することになっていた」「する予定でいた」が良いでしょう。

temptの目的語は関係代名詞whomが受けているIdunaで,tempt Iduna awayは「イズンを誘惑して連れ出す」「イズンを誘拐する」です。



There was another delightful thing in the garden, and that was Iduna’s casket. This was a magic box filled with big, golden-red apples, which she always gave her friends to taste. These wonderful apples were not only delicious to eat, but whoever tasted them, no matter how tired or feeble he might be, would feel young and strong again. So the dwellers in Asgard ate often of this wonderful fruit, which kept them fresh and young, fit to help the people in the world of Midgard.



delicious to eatのtoは「形容詞を修飾する副詞的用法のto不定」です。有名な例はdangerous to swin inです。1つの定訳として「……するのに」がありますが,「泳ぐのに危険だ」「食べるのに美味しい」はややテニヲハが妙なので,「泳ぐと危険だ」「食べると美味しい」のように「……すると」と訳すのも手です。

whoever Vは「Vする者は誰でも」or「たとえ誰がVしようとも」,no matter how ... S V = however ... S V は「たとえどれほど……にSVでも」という意味で,共に複合関係詞です。

fit to-Vは「Vするのに相応しい」で,このto-Vも「形容詞を修飾する副詞的用法のto不定詞」です。形容詞を修飾できるのは形容詞ではなく副詞です。だから「形容詞を修飾する副詞的用法」と言うわけですね。


The casket in which Iduna kept her apples was always filled, for whenever she took out one, another came in its place; but no one knew where it came from, and only the goddess of youth, herself, could take the apples from the box, for if any one else tried, the fruit grew smaller and smaller, as the hand came nearer, until at last it vanished away. A few days after Loki’s bargain with the giant Thiassi, Iduna was in her bright garden one morning, watering the flowers, when her husband, Bragi, came to say good-by to her, because he must go on a journey.


whenever S V「SVする時はいつでも」「たとえいつSVしようとも」も複合関係詞です。


bargainに「契約,取引」の意味があることは重要です。bargaining「交渉」という名詞もあります。コロケーションとして「strike a 形容詞 bargain」があります。またbargainは「バーゲン」の意味ではなく,「バーゲンの掘り出し物」という意味です。日本語の「バーゲン」はa (bargain) saleです。


Loki watched him start off, and thought, “Now, here is my chance to tempt Iduna away from Asgard.” After a while he went to the garden, and found the lovely goddess sitting among her flowers and birds. She looked up at Loki with such a sweet smile, as he came near, that he felt almost ashamed of his cruel plan; but he sat down on a grassy bank, and asked Iduna for one of her magic apples.


almost1つ付けるだけで「危うくそうなりかけたがそうはならなかった」を表現できます。I fainted.→I almost fainted.「私は危うく失神するところだった」です。almostをnearlyに変えると,もっと「そうなりかけている」ことを強調します。ロキはやぱっりワルなので,almostでいいわけです。



After tasting it, he smacked his lips, saying, “Do you know, fair Iduna, as I was coming home toward Asgard one day, I saw a tree full of apples which were really larger and more beautiful than yours; I do wish you would go with me and see them.”

“Why, how can that be?” said Iduna, “for Father Odin has often told me that my apples were the largest and finest he ever saw. I should so like to see those others, and I think I will go with you now, to compare them with mine.”

“Come on, then!” said Loki; “and you’d better take along your own apples, so that we can try them with the others.”






Now Bragi had often told Iduna that she must never wander away from home, but, thinking it would do no harm to go such a little way, just this once, she took the casket of apples in her hand and went with Loki. They had hardly passed through the garden gate, when she began to wish herself back again, but Loki, taking her by the hand, hurried along to the rainbow bridge.



hardly ... when 〜「……するかしないかのうちに〜」は重要構文ですね。受験に出やすいのはhardlyが文頭に回った形でHardly had they passed through the garden gate, when ... と倒置になります。2020/2/3の記事の(2)で解説しました。


They had no sooner crossed over Bifröst than Iduna saw a big eagle flying toward them. Nearer and nearer he came, until at last he swooped down and seized poor Iduna with his sharp talons, and flew away with her to his cold, barren home. There she stayed shut up for many long dreary months, always longing to get back to Asgard, to see Bragi and her lovely garden.


no sooner ... than 〜もhardly ... when 〜の言い換えで,No sooner had they crossed ...という倒置形も有名です。2020/2/3の記事の(1)で解説しています。




The giant Thiassi had long been planning that if he could only once get the fair goddess of youth in his power, he would eat her magic apples, and so get strength enough to conquer the Æsir; but now, after all, she would not give him even one of them, and when he put his hand into the casket, the apples grew smaller and smaller, until at last they vanished, so that he could not get even a taste.




This cruel storm giant kept poor Iduna closely shut up in a little rock chamber, hoping that some day he could force her to give him what he wanted. All day long she heard the sea beating on the rocks below her gloomy cell, but she could not look out, for the only window was a narrow opening in the rock, high up above her head. She saw no one but the giant, and his serving-women, who waited upon her.


nothing but Nは「Nだけ(only N)」ですが,人の時はnobody but N,no one but Nと言いましょう。


When these women first came to her, Iduna was surprised to see that they were not ugly or stern-looking, and, when she looked at their fair, smiling faces, she hoped they would be friendly and pitiful to her in her trouble. She begged them to help her, and, with many tears, told them her sad story; but still they kept on smiling, and when they turned their backs, Iduna saw that they were hollow. These were the Ellewomen, who had no hearts, and so could never be sorry for any one. When one is in trouble, it is very hard to be with Ellewomen.





Every day the giant came to ask Iduna, in his terrible voice, if she had made up her mind to give him the apples. Iduna was frightened, but she always had courage enough to say “No,” for she knew it would be false and cowardly to give to a wicked giant these precious gifts which were meant for the high gods. Although it was hard to be a prisoner, and to see no one but the cold, fair Ellewomen who kept on smiling at her tears, she knew it was far better to belong to the bright Æsir, even in prison, than to be a giant, or an Ellewoman, no matter how free or smiling they might be.


give A to Bがgive to B Aとなり,give to a wicked giant these precious giftsとなっていますね。「give toってどんな熟語だろう」と辞書をひいてははいけません。these precious giftsには関係代名詞whichが付いて更に長くなっているのです。

belong to Nは中学生でも習う「Nに属する」ですね。なぜlongが付くのでしょうか。「属する」と「長くとどまる」からでしょうか。どうもlong「長い・長く」とは関係ないようです。例えばドイツ語でerlangenは「得る」という意味ですが,この辺と関係ありそうです。