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So Sir Gawain sent him to the court to Camelot, making him bear one dead greyhound before and one behind him on his horse. “Tell me thy name before we part,” said he.

“My name is Athmore of the Marsh,” he answered.

Then went Sir Gawain into the castle, and prepared to sleep there and began to unarm; but Gaheris upbraided him, saying, “Will ye disarm in this strange country? bethink ye, ye must needs have many enemies about.”





No sooner had he spoken than there came out suddenly four knights, well armed, and assailed them hard, saying to Sir Gawain, “Thou new-made knight, how hast thou shamed thy knighthood! a knight without mercy is dishonoured! Slayer of fair ladies, shame to thee evermore! Doubt not thou shalt thyself have need of mercy ere we leave thee.”



Then were the brothers in great jeopardy, and feared for their lives, for they were but two to four, and weary with travelling; and one of the four knights shot Sir Gawain with a bolt, and hit him through the arm, so that he could fight no more. But when there was nothing left for them but death, there came four ladies forth and prayed the four knights’ mercy for the strangers. So they gave Sir Gawain and Gaheris their lives, and made them yield themselves prisoners.


jeopardy は「危険」という意味で,「5分5分のゲーム」が語源のようです。“je” が jest(=joke),joke と関係しているようです。


On the morrow, came one of the ladies to Sir Gawain, and talked with him, saying, “Sir knight, what cheer?”

“Not good,” said he.

“It is your own default, sir,” said the lady, “for ye have done a passing foul deed in slaying that fair damsel yesterday — and ever shall it be great shame to you. But ye be not of King Arthur’s kin.”




kin「親族」は kind「種類」から連想して覚えるのが有効です。


“Yea, truly am I,” said he; “my name is Gawain, son of King Lot of Orkney, whom King Pellinore slew — and my mother, Belisent, is half-sister to the king.”

When the lady heard that, she went and presently got leave for him to quit the castle; and they gave him the head of the white hart to take with him, because it was in his quest; but made him also carry the dead lady with him — her head hung round his neck and her body lay before him on his horse’s neck.




got leave for him to quit について,leave が「許可(permission),暇乞い」という意味であることがまず重要です。leave to quit で「去る許可」ですが,for him が to quit の〈意味上の主語〉を表し,「彼が去る許可」となります。


So in that fashion he rode back to Camelot; and when the king and queen saw him, and heard tell of his adventures, they were heavily displeased, and, by the order of the queen, he was put upon his trial before a court of ladies — who judged him to be evermore, for all his life, the knight of ladies’ quarrels, and to fight always on their side, and never against any, except he fought for one lady and his adversary for another; also they charged him never to refuse mercy to him that asked it, and swore him to it on the Holy Gospels. Thus ended the adventure of the white hart.


・女性の遺体を乗せているのがファッションとは何事? ということではなく,この fashion は「やり方,方法(way, manner)」です。「やり方(fashion, manner)」から「ファッション」や「マナー(manners)」が生まれたわけですね。

trial「公判」は try の名詞形です。

・彼が女性の敵になってはならないことの例外として「彼が1人の女性の為に戦い,彼の敵が別の女性の為に戦う場合」というのが規定されましたが,そこで fights ではなく過去形の fought が使われていますね。仮定法過去ということでしょうか。


Meanwhile, Sir Tor had made him ready, and followed the knight who rode away with the hound. And as he went, there suddenly met him in the road a dwarf, who struck his horse so viciously upon the head with a great staff, that he leaped backwards a spear’s length.

“Wherefore so smitest thou my horse, foul dwarf?” shouted Sir Tor.




“Because thou shall not pass this way,” replied the dwarf, “unless thou fight for it with yonder knights in those pavilions,” pointing to two tents, where two great spears stood out, and two shields hung upon two trees hard by.

“I may not tarry, for I am on a quest I needs must follow,” said Sir Tor.




“Thou shalt not pass,” replied the dwarf, and therewith blew his horn. Then rode out quickly at Sir Tor one armed on horseback, but Sir Tor was quick as he, and riding at him bore him from his horse, and made him yield. Directly after came another still more fiercely, but with a few great strokes and buffets Sir Tor unhorsed him also, and sent them both to Camelot to King Arthur. Then came the dwarf and begged Sir Tor to take him in his service, “for,” said he, “I will serve no more recreant knights.”



“Take then a horse, and come with me,” said Tor.

“Ride ye after the knight with the white hound?” said the dwarf; “I can soon bring ye where he is.”




So they rode through the forest till they came to two more tents. And Sir Tor alighting, went into the first, and saw three damsels lie there, sleeping. Then went he to the other, and found another lady also sleeping, and at her feet the white hound he sought for, which instantly began to bay and bark so loudly, that the lady woke. But Sir Tor had seized the hound and given it to the dwarfs charge.



“What will ye do, Sir knight?” cried out the lady; “will ye take away my hound from me by force?”

“Yea, lady,” said Sir Tor; “for so I must, having the king’s command; and I have followed it from King Arthur’s court, at Camelot, to this place.”

“Well” said the lady, “ye will not go far before ye be ill handled, and will repent ye of the quest.”




ye will not go far before ye... は「貴方は……する前に遠くへ行かないでしょう」→「貴方は遠くへ行かないうちに……するでしょう」です。


“I shall cheerfully abide whatsoever adventure cometh, by the grace of God,” said Sir Tor; and so mounted his horse and began to ride back on his way. But night coming on, he turned aside to a hermitage that was in the forest, and there abode till the next day, making but sorrowful cheer of such poor food as the hermit had to give him, and hearing a Mass devoutly before he left on the morrow.


・この段落には abide が異なる意味で2回使われています。1回目の abide は「我慢する」です。2回目の abide(過去形 abode になっている)は「とどまる」です。つまり「そこにとどまる」→「その状態にとどまる」→「その状態を甘受する」→「その状態を我慢する」となったのでしょう。また abide by... は「従う,守る」です。


And in the early morning, as he rode forth with the dwarf towards Camelot, he heard a knight call loudly after him, “Turn, turn! Abide, Sir knight, and yield me up the hound thou tookest from my lady.” At which he turned, and saw a great and strong knight, armed full splendidly, riding down upon him fiercely through a glade of the forest.

そして翌朝早く,ドワーフキャメロットに向かっていると,1人の騎士が後ろから叫ぶのが聞こえた。「戻って!留まり下さい,騎士殿!貴殿が私の恋人から奪った犬を返して下さい」 それを聞いて彼が振り返ると,大きく屈強な騎士が壮麗な完全武装をして激しく彼めがけて,森の空き地を通って走って来ていた。

・また Abide が出てきましたがここは「留まりなさい」→「ストップしなさい」ですね。


Now Sir Tor was very ill provided, for he had but an old courser, which was as weak as himself, because of the hermit’s scanty fare. He waited, nevertheless, for the strange knight to come, and at the first onset with their spears, each unhorsed the other, and then fell to with their swords like two mad lions. Then did they smite through one another’s shields and helmets till the fragments flew on all sides, and their blood ran out in streams; but yet they carved and rove through the thick armour of the hauberks, and gave each other great and ghastly wounds. But in the end, Sir Tor, finding the strange knight faint, doubled his strokes until he beat him to the earth. Then did he bid him yield to his mercy.


fall to は「けんかを始める;仕事に取り掛かる,食事を食べ始める」という意味で,to は目的語を取りません(副詞の to)。他に目的語を取らない to としては come to「意識を取り戻す」があります。to and fro「行ったり来たり」の to も副詞の to ですね。


“That will I not,” replied Abellius, “while my life lasteth and my soul is in my body, unless thou give me first the hound.”

“I cannot,” said Sir Tor, “and will not, for it was my quest to bring again that hound and thee unto King Arthur, or otherwise to slay thee.”

With that there came a damsel riding on a palfrey, as fast as she could drive, and cried out to Sir Tor with a loud voice, “I pray thee, for King Arthur’s love, give me a gift.”





“Ask,” said Sir Tor, “and I will give thee.”

Grammercy,” said the lady, “I ask the head of this false knight Abellius, the most outrageous murderer that liveth.”

“I repent me of the gift I promised,” said Sir Tor. “Let him make thee amends for all his trespasses against thee.”




Grammercy は grammar「文法」とは関係なく,gram+mercy「慈悲」です。Grand mercy「(貴方の)大いなる慈悲(に感謝)」を早口で言って nd の音が消え,grammercy,gramercy となりました。

outrageous rage「激怒」から来ているものの,「(本人が)怒っている」という意味ではなく,「周りが怒り狂うような」→「けしからぬ,とんでもない,極悪非道な」という意味です。北野武の「アウトレイジ」も「極悪非道,極道」という意味と思われます。


“He cannot make amends,” replied the damsel, “for he hath slain my brother, a far better knight than he, and scorned to give him mercy, though I kneeled for half an hour before him in the mire, to beg it, and though it was but by a chance they fought, and for no former injury or quarrel. I require my gift of thee as a true knight, or else will I shame thee in King Arthur’s court; for this Abellius is the falsest knight alive, and a murderer of many.”


scorn は食べ物のスコーン(scone)ではなく「嘲る」です。では scorned to give him mercy は「嘲って彼に慈悲を示した」かというとそうではありません。scorn to-V とは「Vすることを嘲る」→「Vすることを恥とする,Vすることを潔しとしない」という意味なので,結果的に「Vしない」ということになります。「お前に慈悲を示す?そんな恥ずかしいことができるかよ」と言って少女の兄を殺してしまったのです。








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