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Then rose the king and spake to all the Table Round, and charged them to be ever true and noble knights, to do neither outrage nor murder, nor any unjust violence, and always to flee treason; also by no means ever to be cruel, but give mercy unto him that asked for mercy, upon pain of forfeiting the liberty of his court for evermore. Moreover, at all times, on pain of death, to give all succour unto ladies and young damsels; and lastly, never to take part in any wrongful quarrel, for reward or payment. And to all this he swore them knight by knight.


spake(スペイク)は speak の過去形 spoke(米スポウク,英スパウク)の別形です。こんなのあるんですね。

charge は「責める」とか「突撃」とか,「充電する」とかがありますが,「何かを負わせる」というイメージがあり,ここでは「義務を負わせる」即ち「……するよう命じる」です。

upon pain ofon pain ofunder pain of は「違反したら……になるという覚悟のもと」といった意味です。

swear は「誓う;ののしる(誓う時に神の名を口にするから)」という意味ですが,「誓わせる」という意味もあります。珍しいことではなく,例えば determine は「決意する,決意させる」ですから受け身の be determined to-V は「Vするよう決意している」となります。ここでは swear A to B「AにBを誓わせる」という語法で,to B が to all this「このこと全て」となって前に移動しているのです。


Then he ordained that, every year at Pentecost, they should all come before him, wheresoever he might appoint a place, and give account of all their doings and adventures of the past twelvemonth. And so, with prayer and blessing, and high words of cheer, he instituted the most noble order of the Round Table, whereto the best and bravest knights in all the world sought afterwards to find admission.




Then was the high feast made ready, and the king and queen sat side by side, before the whole assembly; and great and royal was the banquet and the pomp.

And as they sat, each man in his place, Merlin went round and said, “Sit still awhile, for ye shall see a strange and marvellous adventure.”





So as they sat, there suddenly came running through the hall, a white hart, with a white hound next after him, and thirty couple of black running hounds, making full cry; and the hart made circuit of the Table Round, and past the other tables; and suddenly the white hound flew upon him and bit him fiercely, and tore out a piece from his haunch. Whereat the hart sprang suddenly with a great leap, and overthrew a knight sitting at the table, who rose forthwith, and, taking up the hound, mounted, and rode fast away.




But no sooner had he left, than there came in a lady, mounted on a white palfrey, who cried out to the king, “Lord, suffer me not to have this injury! — the hound is mine which that knight taketh.” And as she spake, a knight rode in all armed, on a great horse, and suddenly took up the lady and rode away with her by force, although she greatly cried and moaned.

しかし猟犬に乗った騎士が去るや否や白馬に乗った女性が入って来て,王にこう叫んだ。「王様,こんな侮辱を私に与えないでください! あの騎士が奪ったのは私の犬です」 彼女がこう話すうちに,完全武装した騎士が大きな馬に乗って入ってきて,突然女性を担ぎ上げ,彼女は大いに悲鳴やうめき声を上げたが,無理やり彼女を連れ去った。

no sooner ... than ~ は「……するやいなや~」です。no sooner という否定語が文頭に立っているため,「...」の部分が倒置(had he left)となっています(否定語文頭倒置)

suffer me not to は,suffer 人 to-V に「人にVさせる」という意味があるため,「私に……させないで」という意味です。suffer には「(敗北など)を蒙(こうむ)る・経験する」という意味がありますね。だから suffer 人 to-V は「人がVする状態を蒙る」→「人がVするままにしておく」と考えましょう。to のあとの have this injury は,彼女は怪我をしているわけではないようですから,injury は「体の傷(怪我)」ではなく「心の傷」つまり「侮辱,無礼,名誉棄損」でしょう。hurt,injury,wound 全てについて,「体の傷」「心の傷」両方の可能性がありますから文脈に注意しましょう。

the hound is mine which that knight taketh は少し語順を直せば簡単です。the hound which that knight taketh is mine「あの騎士がtakeしている犬は私のものだ」ですね。 


Then the king desired Sir Gawain, Sir Tor, and King Pellinore to mount and follow this adventure to the uttermost; and told Sir Gawain to bring back the hart, Sir Tor the hound and knight, and King Pellinore the knight and the lady.



So Sir Gawain rode forth at a swift pace, and with him Gaheris, his brother, for a squire. And as they went, they saw two knights fighting on horseback, and when they reached them they divided them and asked the reason of their quarrel. “We fight for a foolish matter,” one replied, “for we be brethren; but there came by a white hart this way, chased by many hounds, and thinking it was an adventure for the high feast of King Arthur, I would have followed it to have gained worship; whereat my younger brother here declared he was the better knight and would go after it instead, and so we fight to prove which of us be the better knight.”


divide は「分ける,分割する」ですが,ここは戦っている2人の間に入ったということでしょう。しかしこの動詞は「仲違いさせる」の意味もあるので,文脈に注意して下さい。

“This is a foolish thing,” said Sir Gawain. “Fight with all strangers, if ye will, but not brother with brother. Take my advice, set on against me, and if ye yield to me, as I shall do my best to make ye, ye shall go to King Arthur and yield ye to his grace.”

“Sir knight,” replied the brothers, “we are weary, and will do thy wish without encountering thee; but by whom shall we tell the king that we were sent?”





“By the knight that followeth the quest of the white hart,” said Sir Gawain. “And now tell me your names, and let us part.”

“Sorlous and Brian of the Forest,” they replied; and so they went their way to the king’s court.




Then Sir Gawain, still following his quest by the distant baying of the hounds, came to a great river, and saw the hart swimming over and near to the further bank. And as he was about to plunge in and swim after, he saw a knight upon the other side, who cried, “Come not over here, Sir knight, after that hart, save thou wilt joust with me.”



I will not fail for that,” said Sir Gawain; and swam his horse across the stream.

Anon they got their spears, and ran against each other fiercely; and Sir Gawain smote the stranger off his horse, and turning, bade him yield.

“Nay,” replied he, “not so; for though ye have the better of me on horseback, I pray thee, valiant knight, alight, and let us match together with our swords on foot.”




I will not fail for that については初め「fail for ってなに……」とか思ってしまいましたが,for that「その事のために・その事と引き換えに」「fail したりはしない」→「そんな事で私は挫けない」ということと理解しました。

have the better of get the better of とも言いますが「……より優れる,……に勝つ」です。


“What is thy name?” quoth Gawain.

“Allardin of the Isles,” replied the stranger.

Then they fell on each other; but soon Sir Gawain struck him through the helm, so deeply and so hard, that all his brains were scattered, and Sir Allardin fell dead. “Ah,” said Gaheris, “that was a mighty stroke for a young knight!”

Then did they turn again to follow the white hart, and let slip three couple of greyhounds after him; and at the last they chased him to a castle, and there they overtook and slew him, in the chief courtyard.





the Isles は意味を取れば「諸島」ですが,どこのことなのか……。英国諸島も the British Isles です。


At that there rushed a knight forth from a chamber, with a drawn sword in his hand, and slew two of the hounds before their eyes, and chased the others from the castle, crying, “Oh, my white hart! alas, that thou art dead! for thee my sovereign lady gave to me, and evil have I kept thee; but if I live, thy death shall be dear bought.” Anon he went within and armed, and came out fiercely, and met Sir Gawain face to face.


evil have I kept thee の解釈は苦しみましたが,evil が副詞であることは確からしく,Wiktionary を調べると「かつては poorly の意味があった」的なことが書いているので「貴方を飼うのが上手でなかった」→「碌に世話もしてやれなかった」と訳しました。

thy death shall be dear bought については,dear がイギリス英語で「値段が高い」の意味になりうることは有名です。dear bought は「高く買われた」→「高くついたぞ,このやろう」→「絶対に罪を償わせてやる」と解釈しました。


“Why have ye slain my hounds?” said Sir Gawain; “they did but after their nature: and ye had better have taken vengeance on me than on the poor dumb beasts.”

“I will avenge me on thee, also,” said the other, “ere thou depart this place.”



ere=before は何度も登場しているので最近は説明していなかったのですが,ナポレオンに関する回文を思い出したので紹介します。なお ere は /eə(r)/ という発音で air,heir と同音です。

 Able was I ere I saw Elba.「エルバを見る前,私は力があった」

 Able was I. は CVS という許された語順です。

 ere=before なので,before I saw Elba は「私がエルバ島を見る前は」です。



Then did they fight with each other savagely and madly, till the blood ran down to their feet. But at last Sir Gawain had the better, and felled the knight of the castle to the ground. Then he cried out for mercy, and yielded to Sir Gawain, and besought him as he was a knight and gentleman to save his life. “Thou shalt die,” said Sir Gawain, “for slaying my hounds.”



“I will make thee all amends within my power,” replied the knight.

But Sir Gawain would have no mercy, and unlaced his helm to strike his head off; and so blind was he with rage, that he saw not where a lady ran out from her chamber and fell down upon his enemy. And making a fierce blow at him, he smote off by mischance the lady’s head.




“Alas!” cried Gaheris, “foully and shamefully have ye done — the shame shall never leave ye! Why give ye not your mercy unto them that ask it? a knight without mercy is without worship also.”

Then Sir Gawain was sore amazed at that fair lady’s death, and knew not what to do, and said to the fallen knight, “Arise, for I will give thee mercy.”




“Nay, nay,” said he, “I care not for thy mercy now, for thou hast slain my lady and my love — that of all earthly things I loved the best.”

“I repent me sorely of it,” said Sir Gawain, “for I meant to have struck thee: but now shalt thou go to King Arthur and tell him this adventure, and how thou hast been overcome by the knight that followeth the quest of the white hart.”

“I care not whether I live or die, or where I go,” replied the knight.











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