new!!→【ガチ英文法解説】カテゴリ創設! 元鉄緑会社員兼講師の英語・ゲームブログです。ツイッターの相互フォローと,英文法・英単語の質問を(ガチで)募集中です。質問・ミス指摘はコメント欄か,こちらにお願いします→ kfreynya@gmail.com




Now, when Uther Pendragon had passed through all the land, and settled itand even voyaged into all the countries of the Scots, and tamed the fierceness of that rebel peoplehe came to London, and ministered justice there. And it befell at a certain great banquet and high feast which the king made at Easter-tide, there came, with many other earls and barons, Gorloïs, Duke of Cornwall, and his wife Igerna, who was the most famous beauty in all Britain.



・長く複雑な最終文の骨格は there came Gorloïs, Duke of Cornwall, and his wife Igernaコーンウォール公ゴルロイスとその妻イグレインが来ていた」という there V 構文の外側に it befell (that) = it happened that「~ということが(たまたま)あった」があります。


And soon thereafter, Gorloïs being slain in battle, Uther determined to make Igerna his own wife. But in order to do this, and enable him to come to herfor she was shut up in the high castle of Tintagil, on the furthest coast of Cornwallthe king sent for Merlin, to take counsel with him and to pray his help. This, therefore, Merlin promised him on one conditionnamely, that the king should give him up the first son born of the marriage. For Merlin by his arts foreknew that this firstborn should be the long-wished prince, King Arthur.

そして間もなくしてゴルロイスが戦死してしまったので,ユーサーはイグレインを自身の妻にしようと決意した。しかしこれを果たすため,そして彼女に会うために — というのも彼女はコーンウォールの最果ての海岸のティンタジェル城に閉じこもっていたからで — 王はマーリンを呼び,彼に相談して助けを請うた。それ故マーリンは1つの条件の下でこれを約束した。条件とは,王がその結婚によって最初に生まれる息子を自分の譲り渡すというものだった。というのもマーリンはその技によって,最初の息子が長く待たれる王,アーサーであると予め知っていたからである。



namely は「つまり,すなわち」ですが,文頭には書けず,必ず何かの後に続いて使わねばなりません。



When Uther, therefore, was at length happily wedded, Merlin came to the castle on a certain day, and said, “Sir, thou must now provide thee for the nourishing of thy child.”

And the king, nothing doubting, said, “Be it as thou wilt.”

“I know a lord of thine in this land,” said Merlin, “who is a man both true and faithful; let him have the nourishing of the child. His name is Sir Ector, and he hath fair possessions both in England and in Wales. When, therefore, the child is born, let him be delivered unto me, unchristened, at yonder postern-gate, and I will bestow him in the care of this good knight.”






So when the child was born, the king bid two knights and two ladies to take it, bound in rich cloth of gold, and deliver it to a poor man whom they should discover at the postern-gate. And the child being delivered thus to Merlin, who himself took the guise of a poor man, was carried by him to a holy priest and christened by the name of Arthur, and then was taken to Sir Ector’s house, and nourished at Sir Ector’s wife’s own breasts. And in the same house he remained privily for many years, no man soever knowing where he was, save Merlin and the king.


privily はうっかりすると privately と見間違いますが,「内密に」です。privately にも「密かに」の意はあります。なお privilege は「private な法(leg)」→「特権,特典,栄誉」です。


Anon it befell that the king was seized by a lingering distemper, and the Saxon heathens, taking their occasion, came back from over sea, and swarmed upon the land, wasting it with fire and sword. When Uther heard thereof, he fell into a greater rage than his weakness could bear, and commanded all his nobles to come before him, that he might upbraid them for their cowardice. And when he had sharply and hotly rebuked them, he swore that he himself, nigh unto death although he lay, would lead them forth against the enemy. Then causing a horse-litter to be made, in which he might be carriedfor he was too faint and weak to ridehe went up with all his army swiftly against the Saxons.


nigh unto death although he lay は〈譲歩構文〉が使われています。難しい nigh unto を簡単な near to に換えると,near to death although he lay となり,これは although he lay near to death「彼は死に近いところにいたが」と同じです。near to death を文頭に回す場合,although, though の代わりに as も使うことができ,near to death as he lay となります(〈譲歩の as〉と言います)


But they, when they heard that Uther was coming in a litter, disdained to fight with him, saying it would be shame for brave men to fight with one half dead. So they retired into their city; and, as it were in scorn of danger, left the gates wide open. But Uther straightway commanding his men to assault the town, they did so without loss of time, and had already reached the gates, when the Saxons, repenting too late of their haughty pride, rushed forth to the defence. The battle raged till night, and was begun again next day; but at last, their leaders, Octa and Eosa, being slain, the Saxons turned their backs and fled, leaving the Britons a full triumph.


disdain は「軽蔑する」という意味ですが,disdain to-V は「V することを軽蔑する」すなわち「V することを恥とする・潔しとしない」という意味です。




The king at this felt so great joy, that, whereas before he could scarce raise himself without help, he now sat upright in his litter by himself, and said, with a laughing and merry face, “They called me the half-dead king, and so indeed I was; but victory to me half dead is better than defeat and the best health. For to die with honour is far better than to live disgraced.”



But the Saxons, although thus defeated, were ready still for war. Uther would have pursued them; but his illness had by now so grown, that his knights and barons kept him from the adventure. Whereat the enemy took courage, and left nothing undone to destroy the land; until, descending to the vilest treachery, they resolved to kill the king by poison.


left O undone は「O をしないでおいた」です。left nothing undone は「しないでおかない事がなかった」すなわち「いかなる事をもした」ということでしょう。

descend は「下る」です。descend to the vilest treachery とは「卑劣な裏切りをするところまで自身のレベルを下げた」ということでしょう。


To this end, as he lay sick at Verulam, they sent and poisoned stealthily a spring of clear water, whence he was wont to drink daily; and so, on the very next day, he was taken with the pains of death, as were also a hundred others after him, before the villainy was discovered, and heaps of earth thrown over the well.


end が「終わり」でどうにも理解不能な時,「目的」を思い出しましょう。





The knights and barons, full of sorrow, now took counsel together, and came to Merlin for his help to learn the king’s will before he died, for he was by this time speechless. “Sirs, there is no remedy,” said Merlin, “and God’s will must be done; but be ye all to-morrow before him, for God will make him speak before he die.”

So on the morrow all the barons, with Merlin, stood round the bedside of the king; and Merlin said aloud to Uther, “Lord, shall thy son Arthur be the king of all this realm after thy days?”



remedy「治療法,解決策」は“medy”の部分に着目すれば覚えやすいです。medical などと同じ語幹です。


Then Uther Pendragon turned him about, and said, in the hearing of them all, “God’s blessing and mine be upon him. I bid him pray for my soul, and also that he claim my crown, or forfeit all my blessing;” and with those words he died.

Then came together all the bishops and the clergy, and great multitudes of people, and bewailed the king; and carrying his body to the convent of Ambrius, they buried it close by his brother’s grave, within the “Giants’ Dance.”

するとユーサー・ペンドラゴンは彼の方を向いて,皆が聞こえるように言った。「神の祝福と余の祝福がアーサーに注がれんことを。彼が余の魂に祈ることを求める。また彼が余の王座を求めることを求める。さもなくば余の祝福を全て失うであろう」 そう言って王は死んだ。


claim は「文句を言う」ではありません。「主張する」ここでは「所有権を主張する」です。






にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ