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三国志で英語のお勉強15: 呂布(呂奉先)上





呂布(Lü Bu,呂奉先,Lü Fengxian,?年-199年2月7日)

No descriptions of Lü Bu's physical appearance exist in historical records. It was noted that he specialized in archery and horse-riding, and possessed great physical strength. He was nicknamed "Flying General" (飛將) for his martial prowess. He also owned a powerful steed known as the "Red Hare". The Cao Man Zhuan recorded that there was a saying at the time to describe Lü Bu and the Red Hare: "Among men, Lü Bu; Among steeds, Red Hare)".

呂布の身体的特徴の記述は歴史的記録には存在しません。彼は弓術と馬術を専門とし,大きな身体能力を有していたと記録されています。彼はその武術ゆえに「飛将」と渾名されました。彼はまた「赤兎」として知られる強力な軍馬も有していました。『曹瞞伝』には当時の呂布と赤兎を「人中有呂布 馬中有赤兎」と表現する記録があります。

・prowess は「優れた技術,武勇」という意味です。



Lü Bu was from Jiuyuan County (九原縣), Wuyuan Commandery (五原郡), which is near present-day Baotou, Inner Mongolia. He was known for his martial valour in Bing Province. When Ding Yuan, the Inspector (刺史) of Bing Province, was appointed as a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉)... and ordered to garrison at Henei Commandery, he recruited Lü Bu as a Registrar (主簿) and treated him kindly.


・モンゴルのことを×Mongol とは言いません。モンゴルは Mongolia です。Mongol は Japan (Germany, France) に対する Japanese (German, French) の関係です。


After the death of Emperor Ling in May 189, Ding Yuan led his troops to the capital Luoyang to assist the general He Jin in eliminating the eunuch faction. He Jin ended up being assassinated by the eunuchs instead, after which the warlord Dong Zhuo led his forces into Luoyang and occupied the capital. Dong Zhuo wanted to kill Ding Yuan and take control of Ding's troops, so he induced Lü Bu into betraying Ding and defecting to his side. Lü Bu killed Ding Yuan, cut off his head, and presented it to Dong Zhuo, who had by then seized control of the Han central government. Dong Zhuo appointed Lü Bu as a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉) and placed much faith and trust in him. He also accepted Lü Bu as a foster son. Lü Bu was later promoted from the position of a Cavalry Commandant to a General of the Household (中郎將). He was also made a Marquis of a Chief Village (都亭侯).

189年5月に霊帝崩御すると,丁原は軍勢を首都洛陽に進め,何進が宦官派閥を除くのを援けました。逆に何進は宦官達に暗殺されましたが,そののち董卓が軍勢を洛陽に進め首都を占領しました。董卓丁原を殺してその軍勢を支配したいと思い,呂布を唆して丁原を裏切らせ,自分に寝返(defect to)らせようとしました。呂布丁原を殺し,その首を,その頃には漢の中央政府を掌握していた董卓に献上しました。董卓呂布を騎都尉に任命し,彼を大いに信頼しました。彼はまた呂布を養子に迎えました。呂布は後に騎都尉から中郎将に昇進し,また都亭侯になりました。

・defect と言えば「欠点」ですが,動詞で「寝返る,亡命する」という意味があります。






After Dong Zhuo's death, his followers in Liang Province, led by Li Jue, Guo Si and others, formed an army to attack Chang'an when Wang Yun refused to grant them amnesty... Guo Si led his men to attack the city's north gate, where he met Lü Bu, who told him, "Let's not send our soldiers into battle. Instead, let's have a man-on-man fight." Lü Bu then engaged Guo Si in a duel and injured him. Guo Si's men saved their superior. Both sides withdrew their forces. Lü Bu was unable to resist the enemy so he eventually abandoned Chang'an and fled.



After leaving Chang'an, Lü Bu, accompanied by a few hundred horsemen and with Dong Zhuo's head tied to his saddle, passed through Wu Pass and went to join Yuan Shu in Nanyang Commandery. The Sanguozhi and the Houhanshu give differing accounts of how Yuan Shu treated Lü Bu. The former claimed that Lü Bu expected to be received warmly because he felt that he had helped Yuan Shu take revenge by slaying Dong Zhuo. However, Yuan Shu detested Lü Bu because of his duplicity so he refused to accept him. The latter stated that Yuan Shu treated Lü Bu generously, but Lü behaved arrogantly as he felt that he deserved better treatment because he had done Yuan a favour by killing Dong Zhuo. Lü Bu also allowed his men to plunder the area. Yuan Shu became worried that Lü Bu would pose a threat to him, and Lü also felt uneasy after he heard that Yuan was suspicious of him, so he left.


・account「説明」については動詞の account for...「……を説明する」も重要ですね。また「飲酒運転が交通事故の3割を説明する」と言えば「飲酒運転が交通事故の3割を占める」ということになり,account for... は「(割合)を占める」の意味もあります。


After leaving Yan Shu, Lü Bu then headed to northern China to join Yuan Shu's relative, Yuan Shao. He assisted Yuan Shao in attacking Zhang Yan at Changshan. Zhang Yan had thousands of elite soldiers and cavalry. Lü Bu led his subordinates Cheng Lian (成廉) and Wei Yue (魏越) and dozens of riders to raid Zhang Yan's camp, killing several enemies and then fighting their way out. They did this three to four times every day continuously for a period of over ten days and eventually defeated Zhang Yan's forces.




Lü Bu behaved arrogantly in front of Yuan Shao because he perceived that he had done the Yuans a favour by slaying Dong Zhuo. He belittled Yuan's followers and treated them with contempt. He once asked for more soldiers from Yuan Shao but was refused, after which he sent his men to plunder Yuan's territories. Yuan Shao was greatly displeased and felt that Lü Bu posed a threat to him. Lü Bu sensed that Yuan Shao was suspicious of him so he wanted to leave northern China and return to Luoyang. Yuan Shao pretended to agree and recommended Lü Bu to take up the appointment of Colonel-Director of Retainers (司隷校尉) while secretly plotting to kill him.

呂布は袁家の為に董卓を討ったと認識していたので袁紹の前で傲慢に振舞いました。彼は袁紹の部下を見下し(belittle)侮蔑的に扱いました。彼は一度袁紹からもっと多くの兵を貰い受けようとして断られ,そののち部下を送って袁紹の土地を略奪させました。袁紹は非常に不機嫌になり呂布が自分にとって脅威となったと感じました。呂布袁紹が自分を疑っていると勘づき(sense that...),華北を去って洛陽に戻りたがりました。袁紹は同意する振りをして呂布司隷校尉を拝命できるよう推薦しましたが,密かに彼を殺そうと企て(plot)ました。


・belittle という語を初めて知りましたが,be+little という成り立ちですね。

sense that...「……であると勘づく」は便利です。×sence と綴らぬよう注意。


On the day of Lü Bu's departure, Yuan Shao sent 30 armoured soldiers to escort him and personally saw him off. Along the journey, Lü Bu stopped and rested inside his tent. That night, Yuan Shao's soldiers crept into the tent and killed the person inside, who had covered himself with a blanket, after which they reported that Lü Bu was dead. The following day, Yuan Shao received news that Lü Bu was still alive so he immediately had the gates in his city closed. In fact, Lü Bu had secretly left his tent the previous night without Yuan Shao's soldiers knowing, and had ordered one of his men to remain inside as a decoy.

呂布が出発する日,袁紹は30名の武装兵を送って彼を護衛させ,自ら彼を見送り(see ... off)ました。旅の途中,呂布は止まって陣幕の中で休みました。その夜,袁紹の兵が陣幕に忍び込んで(creep into),頭を毛布で覆っていた中の者を殺し,呂布を殺したと報告しました。翌日袁紹呂布がまだ生きているという知らせを受け直ちに街の門を閉めさせました。実は,呂布はその前日に袁紹の兵の知らないうちに密かに陣幕を抜け出して,囮として部下の一人に中に留まるよう命令していたのでした。

・without A's knowing は「A の知らないうちに」という意味ですが,without A's knowledge とも言います。before A knows it なんかもありますね。


Lü Bu fled to Henei Commandery to join Zhang Yang after his escape. Yuan Shao sent his men to pursue Lü Bu but they were afraid of Lü and did not dare to approach him. Zhang Yang and his subordinates were bribed by Li Jue and Guo Si to kill Lü Bu. When Lü Bu heard about it, he told Zhang Yang, "I'm from the same province as you. If you kill me, you'll become weaker. If you recruit me, you can obtain the same honours and titles as Li Jue and Guo Si." Zhang Yang pretended to agree to help Li Jue and Guo Si kill Lü Bu but he secretly offered refuge to Lü instead. When Li Jue and Guo Si learnt that Zhang Yang had accepted Lü Bu, they became worried so they sent an imperial decree to Henei in Emperor Xian's name, appointing Lü Bu as the Administrator (太守) of Yingchuan Commandery.

呂布は暗殺を逃れた後,張楊に加わるため河内郡に逃亡しました。袁紹は部下を派遣して呂布を追わせましたが彼らは呂布を恐れて近づけませんでした。張楊と部下は李傕,郭汜から呂布を殺すようにと賄賂を貰っていました。呂布はそのことを聞くと張楊に言いました。「私は君と同じ州の出身だ。君が私を殺せば,君の勢力は弱まる。君が私を雇えば,君は李傕,郭汜と同じ名誉・称号にあずかれるぞ」 張楊は李傕,郭汜を手伝って呂布を殺すことに同意しましたが,密かに呂布に隠れ場所を提供しました。張楊呂布を受け入れたことを李傕,郭汜が聞き知ると,彼らは不安になって献帝の名で河内に勅使を送り,呂布を潁川郡太守に任命しました。


・decree は「法令,布告」です。imperial decree は「勅令」でしょう。「勅使」と言い換えています。



Yuan Shao was furious when he heard that Zhang Miao – whom he had a feud with – had become Lü Bu's friend. Around the time, Yuan Shao was still an ally of Cao Cao, so Zhang Miao feared that Cao would combine forces with Yuan to attack him. Besides, Zhang Miao's jurisdiction, Chenliu, was in Yan Province, which was under Cao Cao's control.


・feud は「フュード」のような発音です(/fjuːd/)


In 194, when Cao Cao left Yan Province to attach Xu Province, Zhang Miao's younger brother Zhang Chao (張超), along with Cao's subordinates Chen Gong, Xu Si (許汜) and Wang Kai (王楷), started a rebellion. Chen Gong persuaded Zhang Miao to join them in welcoming Lü Bu into Yan Province. With help from the defectors, Lü Bu seized control of Puyang and declared himself the Governor (牧) of Yan Province. The various commanderies and counties in Yan Province responded to Lü Bu's call and defected to his side, except for Juancheng, Dong'e and Fan counties, which still remained under Cao Cao's control.


・defect は「離反する」という意味です。「欠点」の意味はもっと重要です。


Upon receiving news of the rebellion and Lü Bu's intrusion, Cao Cao aborted the Xu Province campaign and led his forces back to Yan Province. The armies of Lü Bu and Cao Cao clashed at Puyang, where Cao was unable to overcome Lü, so both sides were locked in a stalemate for over 100 days. At the time, Yan Province was plagued by locusts and droughts so the people suffered from famine and many had resorted to cannibalism to survive. Lü Bu moved his base from Puyang further east to Shanyang. Within two years, Cao Cao managed to retake all his territories in Yan Province and he later defeated Lü Bu in a battle at Juye County. Lü Bu fled east to Xu Province and took shelter under Liu Bei.