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三国志で英語のお勉強18: 袁術(袁公路)



袁術(Yuan Shu,袁公路,Yuan Gonglu,155年-199年7月)

Yuan Shu was from Ruyang County (汝陽縣), Runan Commandery, which is in present-day Shangshui County, Henan. His family had for over four generations been a prominent force in the Han civil service... Descended from Yuan An, who served during the reign of Emperor Zhang, Yuan Shu was a son of the Minister of Works Yuan Feng (袁逢) and his principal wife. Yuan Shu is sometimes described to be a younger cousin of the warlord Yuan Shao, but was actually Yuan Shao's younger half-brother.



・司空(司工)が Minister of Works と訳されていますが,works は「土木工事」という意味です。建設大臣ですね。


As a young man he gained a reputation for gallantry and liked to go hunting with dogs and falcons. Nominated as Filial and Incorrupt, he later became Intendant of Henan (河南尹) and then General of the Household Rapid as a Tiger (虎賁中郎將).


・孝廉が Filial and Incorrupt と訳されていますが,「親孝行で清廉だ」という意味であり,filial は「子に相応しい」,incorrupt は「高潔な」です。まだ科挙はなく,推薦制(郷挙里選)ですね。


After the death of General-in-Chief He Jin (22 September 189), Yuan Shu... led his men to kill the eunuch faction. When Dong Zhuo seized control of the Han central government, he wanted to appoint Yuan Shu as General of the Rear, but, fearing Dong Zhuo, Yuan Shu fled to Nanyang Commandery, which he took control over after Sun Jian killed its grand administrator, Zhang Zi.

189年9月22日の大将軍何進の死後,袁術は部下を率いて宦官派閥(eunuch faction)を殺戮しました。董卓が漢の中央政府を掌握すると,彼は袁術を後将軍に任命しましたが,董卓を恐れ,袁術南陽郡に逃亡し,孫堅がそこの太守の張咨を殺した後,南陽を支配しました。

・「宦官」の訳である eunuch は「ユーナク」のような発音です(/juːnək/)


Yuan Shu participated in the Campaign against Dong Zhuo led by Yuan Shao. He was joined by Sun Jian, whom he appointed to Inspector of Yu Province. Sun Jian succeeded in defeating and killing Dong's general Hua Xiong (191), but Yuan Shu grew wary that Sun would become too successful and no longer submit to his command, and temporarily secretly cut off Sun's food supplies... By the time Sun Jian reached Luoyang, it had been largely destroyed by fires set by Dong Zhuo, whose forces fled westwards to Chang'an, abducting the emperor. However, his soldiers found the Imperial Seal, which Sun Jian passed to his superior Yuan Shu.

袁術袁紹率いる反董卓連合に参加しました。彼には孫堅が加わり,彼は孫堅を豫洲刺史に任命しました。孫堅董卓の将軍華雄を破り討ち取るのに成功しました(191年)が,袁術孫堅が成功しすぎて自分に従わ(submit to)なくなることを警戒し,一時的に孫堅の食糧補給を密かに断ちました。孫堅が洛陽に達するまでに,洛陽は董卓によって大部分が焼き落され,董卓の軍勢は皇帝を連行して西の長安に逃亡しました。しかし孫堅の兵が玉璽を発見し,孫堅はそれを袁術に渡しました。


・「連行する」と訳しましたが,abduct は「誘拐する,拉致する」です。"ab" は abnormal の "ab","duct" は「導く」と考えれば「abnormal な方に導く」で「誘拐する」がイメージしやすいです。


Yuan Shu's rule in Nanyang was despotic. After the dissension of the alliance against Dong Zhuo in 191, he vied with Yuan Shao over control of northern China, each establishing opposing alliances. Yuan Shu allied with Yuan Shao's northern rival Gongsun Zan, and Yuan Shao in turn allied with Yuan Shu's southern rival Liu Biao. Yuan Shu sent Sun Jian to attack Liu Biao, but his general was killed in the Battle of Xiangyang (191). Sun Jian's nephew Sun Ben succeeded him as Yuan Shu's general and Inspector of Yu Province. After this defeat and his unpopularity due to his extravagant regime in Nanyang, Yuan Shu moved his residence to Chenliu, and extended his influence into Yang Province in 192.

袁術南陽支配は横暴(despotic)でした。191年に反董卓連合が仲違いすると,彼は華北の支配を巡って袁紹と張り合い(vie with...),それぞれが対立する同盟を結成しました。袁術袁紹の北のライバルである公孫瓚と結び,代わりに袁紹袁術の南のライバルである劉表と結びました。袁術孫堅を送って劉表を攻撃させましたが,孫堅は襄陽の戦いで戦死しました(191年)。孫堅の甥孫賁袁術の将軍・豫洲刺史として孫堅の跡を継ぎました。この敗北及び,南陽における浪費的な(extravagant)体制による不人気のため,袁術は本拠を陳留に移動させ,192年に揚州に影響力を拡大しました。


In early 193, Yuan Shu suffered repeated defeats, such as the Battle of Fengqiu, by the combined armies of Cao Cao and Yuan Shao. He fled to Shouchun in Jiujiang on the southern bank of the huai River. From his new headquarters, he built up a powerful warlord state. He deposed Inspector Chen Wen of Yang Province and took the title for himself, also claiming to be Lord of Xu Province.



From 194 to early 197, Sun Jian's son Sun Ce and brother-in-law Wu Jing conquered many territories in Jiangdong on Yuan Shu's behalf. He was less successful in expanding his rule in Xu Province, where he fought against Liu Bei and Lü Bu; the latter briefly allied himself to Yuan Shu in 196, but betrayed him again and drove him back to Shouchun.

194年から197年前半にかけて孫堅の息子孫策と義弟の呉景が袁術の為に(on ...'s behalf)江東の多くの地域を征服しました。袁術は徐州で劉備呂布と戦い,徐州における支配を拡大することにそれほど成功しませんでした。呂布は196年に一時的に袁術と同盟しましたが,再び袁術を裏切って彼を寿春に追い返しました。

・on A's behalf = on behalf of A は「A に代わって,A の為に」です。



Yuan Shu declared himself emperor under the short-lived Zhongshi (仲氏) dynasty in early 197, citing superstition as his justification, including the Chinese characters for his given name Shu and courtesy name Gonglu, and his possession of the Imperial Seal, which was given to him by the late Sun Jian. This audacious action made him a target of the other warlords. His extravagant lifestyle and arrogance caused many of his followers to desert him. Most devastating of the departures and defections – both to Yuan Shu personally and to the strength of his forces – was that by Sun Ce, who had conquered most of the Jiangdong territories under Yuan Shu's banner.

袁術は197年前半,彼の名前「術」と字の「公路」を表す漢字を含む迷信と,故(the late...)孫堅から譲られた玉璽を保持していることを引き合いに出して,短命の仲王朝の名の下に皇帝を僭称しました。この大胆不敵な(audacious)行動により彼は他の群雄の標的にされました。彼の浪費的生活と傲慢さにより,支持者の多くが彼を見捨てました。離反の中で,彼個人にとっても彼の国力にとっても最も痛手だったのは,袁術の旗の下で江東の大半を征服していた孫策の離反でした。




Following crushing defeats by the armies of Cao Cao, Liu Bei, and Lü Bu, Yuan Shu attempted to flee north to join Yuan Shao. Yuan Shao sent his eldest son, Yuan Tan, to try to aid Yuan Shu; however, an alliance between the Yuan brothers who had long hated each other would not arise, as Yuan Tan arrived too late, and Yuan Shu's forces were blocked and forced to retreat back to Shouchun by Liu Bei. He died shortly thereafter of starvation, being unable to swallow the coarse food that his soldiers ate. His final request was for a glass of honey water, which his soldiers had none.


・coarse「粗野な」は course「進路,コース」と同音です(/kɔː(r)s/)