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三国志で英語のお勉強16: 呂布(呂奉先)中



Lü Bu treated Liu Bei very respectfully when he first met him, and he said, "You and I are both from the northern borders. When I saw the Guandong Coalition rising up against Dong Zhuo, I already wanted to help them eliminate him. However, after I slew Dong Zhuo and left Chang'an, none of the former coalition members were willing to accept me. They even tried to kill me." He then brought Liu Bei to his camp, asked Liu to sit on his wife's bed, and instructed his wife to pay respect to Liu. He then threw a feast for Liu Bei and called Liu his "younger brother". Liu Bei knew that Lü Bu was unpredictable and untrustworthy, but he kept quiet and pretended to be friendly towards Lü Bu.

呂布は初めて劉備に会った時,劉備を非常に恭しく扱い,こう言いました。「君と私は共に北方辺境の出身だ。関東の連合(coalition)が董卓に対して起こされた時,既に私は彼らを助けて董卓を除きたかったのだ。しかし私が董卓を殺して長安を去った後,連合の誰も私を受け入れてくれなかった。それどころか殺そうとしてきた」 それから彼は劉備を陣営に連れて行き,劉備に自分の妻の寝床に座るよう言い,妻には劉備に敬意を払うよう言いつけました。それから彼は劉備の為に宴会を催し,劉備「弟」と呼びました。劉備呂布が何をしでかすか分からず,信頼のおけぬ人物だと分かっていましたが,その気持ちを明かさず呂布と親しい振りをしました。


・宴会を「催す」の意味に throw を使うのは『ランダムハウス英和大辞典』には載っていますが『ジーニアス英和辞典』には載っていませんでした。かなりマイナーな用法ですね。普通に hold (held) で良いでしょう。


When Liu Bei was governing Xu Province, he was stationed in the provincial capital Xiapi and he drew boundaries with Yuan Shu in the areas around the Huai River. When Yuan Shu learnt that Lü Bu was in Xu Province, he wanted to instigate Lü Bu to help him deal with Liu Bei, so he wrote to Lü Bu: "In the past, Dong Zhuo monopolised state power, harmed the imperial family, and murdered my family. I participated in the campaign against Dong Zhuo but did not manage to kill him. You slew Dong Zhuo and sent me his head. In doing so, you helped me take revenge and salvage my reputation. This was the first favour you did me... Later, you attacked Cao Cao in Yan Province and helped me regain my reputation. This was the second favour you did me. Throughout my life, I have never heard of the existence of Liu Bei, but he started a war with me. With your mighty spirit, you are capable of defeating Liu Bei, and this will be the third favour you do me... You have been fighting battles for a long time and you lack food supplies. I hereby send you 200,000 hu (斛) of grain and open my doors to you. If they are insufficient, I will continue to provide you a steady flow of supplies. If you need weapons and military equipment, just ask." Lü Bu was delighted and he agreed to help Yuan Shu attack Xiapi.

劉備が徐州を治めていた時,州都下邳に駐留(be stationed)し,淮河周辺の地域で袁術と境を接しました。呂布が徐州にいると知ると,袁術呂布を唆して劉備と戦うのを手伝わせたいと思い,手紙を書きました。「かつて董卓が権力を独占(monopolise)し,帝室を害し,私の一族を殺した。私は反董卓連合に参加したが彼を殺すことは叶わなかった。君は董卓を殺してその首を送ってくれた。そうすることで私が復讐を果たし名声を取り戻すのを手伝ってくれた。これが君が私にしてくれた一つ目のことだ。後に君は兗州曹操を破って私の名声を取り戻してくれた。これが二つ目だ。私は生まれてこの方劉備の存在など聞いたことがないが,彼は私と戦を始めた。君はその勇敢さで,劉備を破ることができる。これが君が私にできる三つ目のことだ。君は長く戦をしており食糧不足に悩んでいる。私は君に二十万(こく)穀物を送り,君を迎え入れよう。不十分であれば,安定的に備蓄を送ろうではないか。武器や装備が必要なら,遠慮なく頼むがよい」 呂布は喜んで,袁術が下邳を攻撃するのを手伝うのに同意しました。

・monopolise はイギリス英語で見られることがある綴りですね。米語では monopolize であり,イギリス英語でもこちらでOKです。


Lü Bu led his forces to some 40 li west of Xiapi. Xu Dan (許耽), who was from Danyang (丹楊) and was serving as a General of the Household (中郎將) under Liu Bei, sent Zhang Kuang (章誑) to meet Lü Bu at night. Zhang Kuang told Lü Bu, "Zhang Yide quarrelled with Cao Bao and killed him. The city is now in a state of chaos. There are 1,000 soldiers from Danyang stationed at the west white gate. When they heard of your arrival, they jumped for joy as if they have been revitalised. The Danyang soldiers will open the west gate for you when you reach there." Lü Bu mobilised his troops that night and reached Xiapi at dawn, where the Danyang soldiers opened the west gate for him. Lü Bu sat on the viewing platform above the gate and instructed his troops to set fire in the city. They defeated Zhang Fei and his men in battle and captured Liu Bei's family, the families of Liu's subordinates, and Liu's supplies.


・revitalise [revitalize]「生き返らせる」は re+vital に着目して意味を理解しましょう。


Upon receiving news of Lü Bu's intrusion, Liu Bei immediately headed back to Xiapi Commandery but most of his troops scattered along the way. With his remaining men, Liu Bei moved eastward to take Guangling Commandery where Yuan Shu's forces defeated him. Liu Bei then retreated to Haixi County. Where, in hunger and desperation, he surrendered to Lü Bu. This took place in around early 196. Lü Bu was displeased that Yuan Shu's supplies had not reached him yet, so he led his men to welcome Liu Bei. He appointed Liu Bei as the Inspector (刺史) of Yu Province and ordered him to garrison at Xiaopei, while he declared himself the Governor of Xu Province and remained in Xiapi.




In July or August 196, Lü Bu's subordinate Hao Meng rebelled against him and attacked his office in Xiapi. Lü Bu's general Gao Shun suppressed the rebellion with help from Cao Xing – Hao Meng's subordinate, who refused to betray Lü Bu – and killed Hao Meng.

Later that year, Lü Bu used his archery skill to prevent a battle between Liu Bei and Yuan Shu's general Ji Ling from taking place. He had a ji erected at the gate of the camp, and proposed, "Gentlemen, watch me fire an arrow at the lower part of the curved blade on the ji. If I hit it in one shot, all of you must withdraw your forces and leave. If I don't, you can remain here and prepare for battle." He then raised his bow and fired an arrow at the ji, hitting exactly the lower part of the curved blade. Everyone present at the scene was shocked. They said, "General, you possess Heaven's might!" The following day, they threw another party and then withdrew their forces.


その年の後半,呂布は弓術を使って劉備と,袁術の将軍・紀霊の戦いが起こるのを防ぎました。彼は陣営の門の所に戟を立て(erect)させ,こう提案しました。「各々方,私が弓を射て戟の曲がった刃の下の部分に当てるのを見てくれ。一撃で当てれば,君達はみな軍を引いて去れ。当てられなければここに留まって戦の準備をするがよい」 そして彼は弓をつがえて戟に矢を射て,曲がった刃の下の部分に正確に当てました。その場にいた皆が驚きました。彼らは「将軍の腕は天賦のものです」と言いました。翌日彼らはもう一度宴会を開いて軍勢を引きました。


・He erected a ji ではなく He had a ji erected となっているのは自分で戟を立てたのではなく,「あそこに戟を立ててこい」と部下に命じてやらせたということでしょう。have O 過去分詞は「O を……させる」です。


In early 197, Yuan Shu declared himself emperor in Shouchun, the administrative centre of his territories, and founded a Zhong (仲) dynasty. This was deemed an act of treason against the reigning Emperor Xian of the Han dynasty, so Yuan Shu soon found himself the target of attacks by Cao Cao and other warlords...


・deem は think のような語法が取れます。deem O (to be) C「O を C と見なす,考える」,deem that...「……だと考える」

・treason「反逆」は「トレゾン」ではなく「トリーゾン /triːzən/」です。ただし treacherous「裏切りの」は「トレチャラス /trɛtʃ(ə)rəs/」です。


Earlier on, Yuan Shu wanted to form an alliance with Lü Bu so he proposed a marriage between his son and Lü Bu's daughter. Lü Bu initially agreed. After proclaiming himself emperor, Yuan Shu sent his subordinate Han Yin (韓胤) to meet Lü Bu and escort Lü Bu's daughter back to his territory for the marriage. However, Lü Bu changed his mind after Chen Gui convinced him to do so... He then sent his men to chase Han Yin's convoy, which was on its way back to Shouchun, and retrieve his daughter. He also captured Han Yin and sent him as a prisoner to Xu, where Han Yin was executed.


・convoy や voyage の "voy" は avenue や convenient などの "ven" と同じで「道・行く・来る」という意味です。"con" は「一緒に」という意味があり convoy は「一緒に行く」という成り立ちです。convenient も「一緒に行ける」→「都合が良い」です。


The main text of the Sanguozhi... mentioned that the Han imperial court appointed Lü Bu as General of the Left (左將軍) instead of General Who Pacifies the East (as stated in the Yingxiong Ji). ... Lü Bu did allow Chen Deng to go to Xu as his representative to thank the imperial court. In Xu, Chen Deng urged Cao Cao to get rid of Lü Bu and agreed to serve as a mole in Xu Province to help Cao Cao eliminate Lü Bu. Chen Deng also received a promotion while his father Chen Gui got a salary increase.


・「スパイ,間者」を含意する動物名としては mole「モグラ」のほか rat「ネズミ」がありますね。


When Chen Deng returned to Xu Province, an angry Lü Bu confronted him, brandished his ji at him and said, "Your father advised me to side with Cao Cao and reject Yuan Shu's offer. Now, I have gained nothing, while you and your father got promoted and rewarded. You must have tricked me! What do you have to say?" Chen Deng maintained his composure and calmly replied, "When I met Cao Cao, I told him, 'You should treat the General in the same way you raise a tiger. Feed it well with meat. If it is not well-fed, it will attack people.' Cao Cao replied, 'You're wrong. He's like a hawk. If it is hungry, it will hunt for you. If it is well-fed, it will fly away.' That was what we talked about." Lü Bu's anger subsided.

陳登が徐州に帰還すると,怒った呂布が彼に対峙し,彼に向けて戟を振り回し(brandish)て「お前の父は俺に曹操と組んで袁術の申し出を断るよう言った。今度は何も得られなかった。なのにお前とお前の父は位が上がり褒美も貰ったようだな。俺を騙したのか。何か言うことはあるか?」と言いました。彼は平静(composure)を保ち,静かに答えました。「曹操に会って私はこう言いました。『将軍を扱うに,虎を育てる時のようにしなさい。肉をしっかり与えなさい。餌が足らないと人を襲いますから』 曹操はこう答えました。『それは違う。彼は鷹のようだ。腹が減ると君を追うぞ。腹を満たせば飛び去るだろう』 こういう話をしたのです」 呂布の怒りは収まり(subside)ました。



Yuan Shu was furious that Lü Bu reneged on his word, so he allied with Han Xian and Yang Feng, and sent his general Zhang Xun (張勳) to attack Lü Bu. Lü Bu asked Chen Gui, "Yuan Shu sends his forces to attack me because I followed your suggestion. What should I do now?" Chen Gui replied, "The alliance between Han Xian, Yang Feng and Yuan Shu is formed by a loose assembly of their forces. They have not decided on a common plan so they will not last long. They are like chickens tied up together and they cannot move in tandem. My son, Deng, has a plan to separate them."



Lü Bu heeded Chen Gui's advice and sent a letter to Han Xian and Yang Feng, "You two generals escorted the Emperor in Luoyang, while I personally killed Dong Zhuo. We have all accomplished deeds worthy of praise. Yuan Shu has committed treason, so everyone should attack him. Why do you side with the traitor instead and join him in attacking me? We should combine forces to defeat Yuan Shu, help the Emperor eliminate this traitor, and achieve glory. We should not lose this opportunity now." He also promised to share the spoils of war with them. Han Xian and Yang Feng were pleased and they agreed to help Lü Bu. They defeated Zhang Xun at Xiapi and captured Qiao Rui (橋蕤), one of Yuan Shu's officers. Yuan Shu's forces suffered heavy casualties and many of his soldiers fell into the river and drowned.

呂布は陳珪の助言を聞いて韓暹と楊奉に手紙を書きました。「君達両将軍は洛陽にて皇帝を護衛し,一方私は自ら董卓を討った。我々はみな賞賛に値する(worthy of praise)行為を成し遂げた。袁術は叛逆を起こしたので皆が彼を攻撃すべきだ。どうして叛逆者を討たずに彼に味方し(side with...),私への攻撃に加わるのか? 我々は軍を結集して袁術を破り,皇帝が叛逆者を除く手助けをして名誉を成すべきなのだ。今この機会を失うべきでないぞ」 彼はまた戦利品(spoils)を彼らと分かち合うことも約束しました。韓暹と楊奉は満足して呂布を援けるのに同意しました。彼らは下邳で張勲を破り,袁術の役人である橋蕤(きょうずい)を捕らえました。袁術軍は大損害を被り,兵の多くが川に落ちて溺死しました。

・casualty は「犠牲者,死傷者」です。×casuality ではないので気を付けて下さい。強勢は ca にあり,/kæʒjʊ(ə)lti/「カジュ(ア)ルティ」です。