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三国志で英語のお勉強14: 陶謙(陶恭祖)



陶謙(Tao Qian,陶恭祖,Tao Gongzu,132年-194年)

Tao Qian was born in Danyang Commandery (丹楊郡), which is around present-day Ma'anshan, Anhui. His father ... died when Tao Qian was still young. As an orphan, he was well known for his daredevil attitude. At the age of 13, he sewed from silk a made-up banner while riding a bamboo horse with all the children from the village following his lead. The Administrator of Cangwu (蒼梧太守), Gan Gong (甘公), born from the same county while travelling met him. He was deeply impressed by his appearance and conversed with him. He was further impressed and agreed to have his daughter married to him. His wife was displeased and told him angrily that this Tao kid is a ruffian, why offer him their daughter? Gan Gong answered that Tao Qian has a unique appearance and will surely accomplish great things in the future...


・daredevil「向こう見ずな,無鉄砲な」は dare+devil という成り立ちです。竹馬の所は「戦争ごっこ」をしていたということでしょう。陶謙と言えば劉備に徐州を譲るお人よし爺さんのイメージがありますが,若い頃は信長のようなやんちゃだったようですね。

・his appearance は「彼の出現・登板」と「彼の外見」の二択です。


As a young man, he was known for being studious and honest. ...he was nominated as a maocai (茂才) and served as Prefect of Lu (盧縣令). He earned a reputation for his inflexible nature and was noted to have great virtue. He was nominated as a xiaolian (孝廉), served in the secretariat and as Prefect of Shu (舒縣令).



・study の tu は「タ」/tʌ/ ですが,studious,studio,student の tu は「トゥー・テュー」/t(j)uː/ です。「スタジオ」という和製発音は study に引っ張られてしまったのでしょう。以下の動画で studio の発音を勉強しましょう。



When the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out, he was appointed as the Inspector of You Province and served as military advisor to Zhang Wen, accompanied him in the northwestern frontiers during the Liang Province Rebellion. Around this time, the western tribes were raiding the lands and Huangfu Song was appointed to pacify them. Tao Qian followed him and served as Commandant Who Raises Military (楊武都尉). During this campaign, they greatly defeated the Qiang tribes. As Bian Zhang and Han Sui rebelled, Tao Qian accompanied Zhang Wen...


・羌 Qiang はチベット遊牧民です。



In the chaos of Dong Zhuo's coup d'état and the battles that followed, Tao Qian was appointed as Inspector of Xu Province, in the province, there were still remnants of the Yellow scarves, Tao Qian succeeded in clearing the area of rebel forces and gained control of the neighbouring Yang Province...  After the failed campaign against Dong Zhuo, Tao Qian sent tributes to the imperial court located at Chang'an and received the titles of General Who Stabilises the East (安東將軍) and Governor of Xu Province (徐州牧) with a peerage as Marquis of Liyang (溧陽侯).


・clearing the area of rebel forces は英文解釈として出題すると面白いですね。これは「反乱軍の地域をクリアする」という構造ではなく,clear A of B「A から B を除く」という語法を使っており,「その地域から反乱軍を除く」です。この of は rob A of B「A から B を奪う」などにも使われます。

marquis は「侯爵」です。但し英国では marquess です。「公爵」は duke です。


Around this time, the Xu province was secured and prospered with many refugees joining. Tao Qian was responsible for starting the careers of Wang Lang, Zhu Zhi and Chen Deng, all of whom would play fairly important roles in the historical events... However, at the same time he was prone to joining forces with unscrupulous characters, such as Ze Rong, Cao Hong (曹宏) and Que Xuan (闕宣), and on the other hand not appointing Zhao Yu (趙昱), a loyal and capable subordinate, to a position of trust. Those who did not respond to his requests to serve him, such as Zhang Zhao and Lü Fan, he had imprisoned, and he also attempted to harm the family of Sun Ce, who was serving Yuan Shu at the time.






In 193, Cao Cao's father Cao Song was travelling through Xu Province to join Cao Cao in Yan Province. Tao Qian's subordinate, Zhang Kai (張闓), attacked the baggage train, killing Cao Song and escaping with the loot. The death of Cao Song prompted Cao Cao, then the Governor of Yan province, to lead an army to invade Xu Province and massacre countless civilians – ostensibly to avenge his father. Tao Qian requested aid from his allies in Qing Province, and was joined by Tian Kai, with the reinforcements Tao Qian was able to resist Cao Cao. Cao Cao's forces eventually ran out of supplies and had to withdraw back to Yan Province.


青州は Qing Province。確かに青島はチンタオですね。青州山東半島のある山東省の辺りです。青は木に対応しているらしく,木々が生い茂る地域だったのかもしれませんね。青島も山東省にあるので,青州と青島の青は関係していそうです。




Cao Cao launched a second invasion in 194, but was forced to turn back when Zhang Miao and Chen Gong rebelled against him and helped a rival warlord, Lü Bu, seize control of his base in Yan Province.



Tao Qian died of illness in 194 at the age of 63 (by East Asian age reckoning), his two sons Tao Shang and Tao Ying did not serve in office. His subordinates Mi Zhu and Chen Deng invited Liu Bei to be the new Governor of Xu Province. Liu Bei initially declined and offered the governorship to Yuan Shu, but Kong Rong eventually convinced him to accept.