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三国志で英語のお勉強17: 呂布(呂奉先)下





Around the time, Xiao Jian (蕭建) served as the Chancellor (相) of Langya State and was stationed in Ju County. Xiao Jian, a conservative man, did not have any contact with Lü Bu. Lü Bu wrote to Xiao Jian: "... I killed Dong Zhuo and headed east, where I hoped to be able to borrow troops and return west to defend the Emperor and restore the capital Luoyang. However, the warlords were fighting among themselves and none of them were concerned about the state. I am from Wuyuan (五原), which is located more than 5,000 li away from Xu Province and is somewhere in the northwestern border. As of now, I came here not to fight for the southeastern lands. Ju and Xiapi are not far from each other so it is easy to maintain communication between them. You behave like you are an emperor in a commandery and a king in a county! In the past, when Yue Yi attacked the Qi state, he conquered over 70 cities in Qi, except for Ju and Jimo because of Tian Dan. I am not Yue Yi, and neither are you Tian Dan. You can seek the counsel of wise men on this letter." After receiving Lü Bu's letter, Xiao Jian ordered Ji Jian (齎牋) to present five fine steeds as gifts to Lü Bu.

このころ蕭建は琅邪国の相として仕え,(きょ)県に駐屯していました。蕭建は保守的な(conservative)人物で,呂布とは接触しませんでした。呂布は蕭建に手紙を書きました。「私は董卓を討って東に向かい,そこで軍隊を借り,西へ戻って皇帝を護り洛陽を取り戻そうとした。しかし領主達は互いに争い,国のことなど考えていなかった。私は徐州から五千里離れ,北西の辺境にある五原の出身だが,今私はここへ来て南東の国の為に戦っている。莒と下邳は互いにそう遠くないので交流はしやすい。君は郡では皇帝の如く,県では王の如く振舞っている。かつて楽毅が斉国を攻めた時,彼は斉の七十城を落とし,田単のおかげで莒と即墨だけが落ちなかった。私は楽毅ではないし,君も田単ではない。この手紙に関し,賢人に相談するが良かろう」 呂布の手紙を読んだ後,蕭建は齎牋に命じて五頭の立派な軍馬を呂布に贈らせました。



Zang Ba defeated Xiao Jian later and seized possession of his resources. When Lü Bu heard that, he wanted to lead his forces to attack Zang Ba in Ju County, but Gao Shun advised him against it, "General, you've earned yourself widespread fame for killing Dong Zhuo. Even if you remain in your current position, those near and far will still be afraid of you. You shouldn't be so reckless as to personally lead your men into battle. If you lose, the damage to your reputation won't be minimal." Lü Bu ignored him. Zang Ba heard of Lü Bu's violent and plundering ways, so he remained inside Ju County and put up a firm defence against Lü Bu. Lü Bu was unable to conquer Ju County so he withdrew his forces and returned to Xiapi. After that, the generals of Taishan bandits include Zang Ba, Sun Guan, Wu Dun, Yin Li and Chang Xi all submitted to Lü Bu, the power of Lü Bu was significantly stronger.

後に臧覇が蕭建を破り,彼の資材を奪いました。呂布がそれを聞くと,軍勢を率いて莒県の臧覇を攻撃したいと思いましたが,高順が反対しました。「将軍あなたは董卓を討ったことにより名声を轟かせました。現在の地位に留まっても,近遠の諸侯は将軍を恐れています。自ら兵を率いて戦闘するような無謀な(reckless)ことをするべきではありません。もし負ければ,名声の低下は小さくありませぬぞ」 呂布は高順の話を無視しました。臧覇呂布の乱暴で略奪的なやり方を聞き,莒県に籠ってしっかりした防御を敷きました。呂布は莒県を征服できず,軍を引いて下邳に帰還しました。その後,臧覇・孫観・呉敦・尹礼・昌豨を含む泰山賊の諸将はみな呂布服従し(submit to...),呂布の力はかなり大きくなりました。


Around late 197 or early 198, Lü Bu sided with Yuan Shu. Lü Bu also ordered his soldiers to gather gold and money to buy some military horses however along the way Liu Bei led his troops and managed to capture the gold and money. In response, Lü Bu sent Gao Shun and Zhang Liao to attack Liu Bei at Peicheng. Cao Cao sent Xiahou Dun to support Liu Bei but Gao Shun defeated Liu Bei...




In the winter of 198, Cao Cao personally led a campaign against Lü Bu and besieged Xiapi. He wrote a letter to Lü Bu, explaining the benefits of submitting and the consequences of putting up resistance. Lü Bu wanted to surrender, but Chen Gong and the others knew that they had already offended Cao Cao (when they betrayed him earlier), so they urged Lü Bu to change his decision. 




When Cao Cao's army reached Pencheng, Chen Gong told Lü Bu, "We should attack the enemy now, since our troops have rested well while the enemy is weary. We're sure to win." Lü Bu replied, "Why don't we wait for them to attack first? After that we'll destroy them in the Si River." When Cao Cao's attacks increased in intensity, Lü Bu went up the White Gate Tower (白門樓; the viewing platform above the main gate in the south of Xiapi) and told his men, "Cao Cao has no intention of finding trouble with you. I should surrender to the wise lord." Chen Gong said, "The treacherous Cao Cao is no wise lord! Surrendering to him is like hitting a rock with an egg! How can you expect to live (after you surrender)?"

曹操軍が彭城に達すると,陳宮呂布に「今攻撃するべきです。我が軍は十分に休んでおり敵軍は疲れています。きっと勝てるでしょう」と言いました。呂布は「先に敵に攻撃させた方が良くないか? そのあと泗水で敵を破ろうではないか」と答えました。曹操軍の攻撃が激しさを増す(increase in intensity)と,呂布は白門楼(下邳城の南門の上の見張り台)に登って部下達に「曹操は君達と事を構えるつもりはない。賢い君主に降伏しようと思う」と言いました,陳宮は「曹操は裏切りが癖で,決して賢い君主ではありません! 奴に降伏するのは卵で岩を叩くようなものです! 生き永らえるとでもお思いですか?」と言いました。



Lü Bu sent Xu Si (許汜) and Wang Kai (王楷) to request urgent aid from Yuan Shu. Yuan Shu said, "Lü Bu refused to send his daughter here, so it's expected that he'll meet his doom. Why does he seek help from me again?" Xu Si and Wang Kai replied, "If Your Highness doesn't save Lü Bu, you'll be courting your own doom. If Lü Bu is destroyed, Your Highness will be next." Yuan Shu then prepared his troops and claimed that he would be sending reinforcements to Lü Bu. In the meantime, Lü Bu thought that Yuan Shu was reluctant to help him because he did not send his daughter to Yuan Shu, so, one night, he tied his daughter to himself and attempted to break out of the siege. However, they encountered Cao Cao's soldiers, who fired arrows at them, so they had no choice but to return to Xiapi. Lü Bu led some 1,000 riders out of the city to engage the enemy, but lost the battle so he retreated back to Xiapi and did not dare to venture out.

呂布は許汜と王楷を派遣して袁術からの救援を緊急要請しました。袁術は言いました。「呂布はこちらに娘を送るのを拒んだ。だから破滅するのももっともだ。どうして再び私の助けを求めるのか?」 許汜と王楷は答えました。「閣下が呂布を援けなければ,自らの破滅を招き(court)ます。呂布が滅びれば,次は閣下の番です」 それで袁術は軍勢を準備し,呂布に援軍を送ると言いました。その間に呂布は,袁術に娘を送らなかったせいで袁術は自分を援けたがらないだろうと考え,ある晩,娘を自分に括り付けて包囲を脱しようとしました。しかし彼らは曹操の兵に遭遇し,兵らは彼ら目がけて矢を射かけてきたので,下邳に戻らざるを得ません(have no choice but to...)でした。呂布は千名の騎兵を率いて街から撃って出ましたが,敗れて下邳に戻り撃って出ようとはしなくなりました。

・「破滅を招く」の「招く」を court で言うことができます。

have no choice but to-V = have no option but to-V = have no alternative but to-V は「V する以外の選択肢を持たない」→「V せざるを得ない」です。「V せざるを+得ない」なのに,「V せざる+おえない」と言う人がいるの,気になりますね。


Lü Bu ordered Chen Gong and Gao Shun to defend Xiapi, while he personally led some horsemen to attack Cao Cao's supply routes. However, before he left, his wife told him, "General, I know you want to attack Cao Cao's supply lines, but Chen Gong and Gao Shun can't get along with each other. If you leave, they may not work well together in defending the city. If a mishap occurs, what will become of you, General? I hope you'll consider this carefully and not be misled by Chen Gong and the others. When I was in Chang'an, you already abandoned me, but I managed to return to you because Pang Shu (龐舒) secretly protected me and kept me with him. You don't need to worry about me now." Lü Bu felt gloomy after listening to his wife and could not decide on what to do.

呂布陳宮と高順に下邳を守るよう命令し,自身は騎兵を率いて曹操の補給路を攻撃しました。しかし出発前に彼の妻が「将軍様,貴方は曹操の補給線を断ちたいのでしょうけど,陳宮と高順は仲が悪いのです。貴方が出て行けば,二人は協力して町を守ることはできないでしょう。ちょっとした不幸(mishap)が起これば,将軍はどうなりますでしょうか? これをよくお考えなさって陳宮らに惑わされることのないよう願います。私が長安にいた頃,貴方は既に私をお捨てなさったのですが,龐舒が密かに私を保護して匿ってくれたので貴方の所に戻ることができました。今はもう私のことは心配なさらないで下さい」と言いました。妻の話を聞いた後,呂布は憂鬱になってどうすべきか分からなくなりました。



Chen Gong told Lü Bu, "Cao Cao has come a long way and he won't be able to last long. General, you can bring some troops with you and set up a camp outside the city, while the others and I will remain behind to defend the city. If the enemy attacks you, I'll lead the city's soldiers to attack them from behind. If they attack the city, you can reinforce the city from outside. Within ten days, the enemy's supplies will be depleted and we can defeat them easily." Lü Bu agreed with Chen Gong's idea. However, Lü Bu's wife said, "In the past, the Caos treated Gongtai (Chen Gong) like a newborn child, but he still turned against them and joined you. Now, the way you treat Gongtai is no lesser than how Cao Cao treated him, and you intend to entrust the entire city to him, along with your family, while you venture out alone? If something happens, I won't be your wife anymore!" Lü Bu then changed his mind.

陳宮呂布に,「曹操は遠くから来ているので長くは持たないでしょう。将軍は一部の部隊を率いて街の外に陣を構え,一方ほかの将と私は街を守ります。敵軍が将軍を攻撃すれば,私が街の兵を率いて背後から攻撃します。敵が街を攻撃すれば,将軍が外から援軍を送って下さい。十日もすれば敵軍の備蓄は激減し(be depleted)て我々は容易く街を守れるでしょう」と言いました。呂布陳宮の考えに同意しました。しかし呂布の妻が言いました。「かつて曹一族は公台(陳宮)を子どものように扱いましたが,それでも彼は曹操らに逆らって貴方の味方をしました。今や貴方の公台への扱い方は曹操の彼への扱い方に負けていませんし,貴方は独り外へ出て,街全体を,貴方の家族もろとも彼に預けようとしています。何かが起こったら,もはや貴方の妻ではいられなくなるでしょう!」 それで呂布は考えを改めました。 

・deplete は難語ですが complete の逆と発想すれば覚えやすそうですね。なお「激減させる」という意味なので be depleted で「激減する」です。plenty「十分,たくさん」も complete, deplete と同根です。

・この the Caos は「混沌」ではありません。「混沌」は chaos ですから綴りが違いますね。これは Cao Cao曹操」の Cao「曹」に複数形の -s が付いた「曹一家」です。例えば the Tanakas で「田中家」です。


Yuan Shu was unable to come to Lü Bu's aid. Cao Cao could not conquer Xiapi despite pressing attacks on the city and his men were growing weary. He wanted to abort the campaign and return to Xuchang, but his advisors Guo Jia and Xun You urged him to press on. He then ordered his troops to direct the waters of the Yi (沂) and Si (泗) rivers to flood Xiapi. After a siege lasting three months, the morale of Lü Bu's forces fell drastically and his men gradually alienated him. On 7 February 199, Lü Bu's subordinates Hou Cheng, Song Xian (宋憲) and Wei Xu (魏續) captured Chen Gong and Gao Shun, and then led their troops to surrender to Cao Cao.


・weary /wɪəri/ は tired と言い換えて差し支えありません。なお wary /weəri/ は「用心深い」ですから注意です。

・morale は「士気」です。moral が「モロー」/mɔr(ə)l/ のように聞こえるのに対し,morale は強勢が後ろに移動して「マラール」/mərɑːl, məræl/  のようになります。

・この 199年2月7日は今の暦に換算した話で,当時の中国の暦では建安3年12月24日です。


Lü Bu and his remaining subordinates went up the White Gate Tower and surrendered when they saw they had been surrounded. The Houhanshu recorded that Lü Bu asked his men to kill him and bring his head to Cao Cao but they refused. Lü Bu surrendered to Cao Cao immediately after.



Lü Bu was tied up and brought before Cao Cao. He said, "I'm being tied up too tightly. Can you loosen the bonds?" Cao Cao replied, "A tiger must be tightly restrained." Lü Bu then said, "My lord, you dread only me, but now, since I've already submitted to you, you shouldn't have any more worries. My lord, why don't you spare me and let me help you lead your troops? In this way, you won't need to worry about not being able to pacify the Empire." When Cao Cao showed signs of reconsideration, Liu Bei interjected, "My lord, haven't you seen what Lü Bu did to Ding Jianyang and Grand Preceptor Dong?" Cao Cao rubbed his chin. Lü Bu shouted at Liu Bei, "You're the most untrustworthy person!"

呂布は縛り上げられて曹操の前に連行されました。彼は「ちょっときつすぎるのではないか。戒めを緩めてくれないか?」と言いました。曹操は「虎はきつく縛るべきだよ」と答えました。すると呂布は「殿,貴方は私だけを恐れているが,今や私が服従したわけですから,もう怖いことはありませんぞ。殿,私を許して(spare me)貴方の軍を率いるのを手伝わせてはいかが? そうすれば帝国を平定(pacify)できないなどという悩みはなくなりますぞ」 曹操が考え直すそぶりを見せると,劉備が割り込んで「殿,呂布が丁建陽や太師董卓にしたことを忘れましたか?」と言いました。曹操は顎をこすりました。呂布劉備にこう怒鳴りました。「お前は全く信用ならぬ男だ!」

・spare me は「私を見逃す」といった意味です。「Asgard Stories 4」でドワーフ達がオーディンに Spare us!「私達を見逃して下さい!」と言うシーンがあります。





Cao Cao had Lü Bu executed by hanging, along with Chen Gong, Gao Shun and others. Their dead bodies were later decapitated and their heads sent to the capital Xu and then buried.



In the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms,  Lü Bu had two wives, a concubine, and a daughter. His concubine was Diaochan, a fictional character and Wang Yun's foster daughter. She accompanied him after he killed Dong Zhuo and was mentioned to be with him during the Battle of Xiaoi. Lü Bu's first wife was Lady Yan (嚴氏), who was based on Lü Bu's real-life wife (the one mentioned in historical sources). Lü Bu's second wife, who was only mentioned by name in the novel, was a fictional daughter of Cao Bao. The role played by Lü Bu's daughter in the novel was similar to that of her counterpart in actual history. She was also unnamed in the novel, but she is called "Lü Lingqi" (吕玲绮) in video games and popular culture.