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The “Rising-Out” of Ulster 

Before the dawn of the ensuing day, Sencha the Druid seated himself upon the summit of the Hill of Slane, beside the tent of Conor, to watch for the first ray of light arising in the east. The Druids had foretold that if the men of Ulster went into battle before the break of day, they must fall before their enemies, but if they waited till the early dawn flooded the hills and vales of Ireland, then it was they who would come off victorious. So eager were the warriors for the fight, that it was hard to hold them till the night was past. On every side, long ere the dawn had broken, they pushed aside their tent-doors and came forth. Nay, many of the host there were, who would not wait their turn to issue from the doors; but all unclothed, their weapons in their hands, they rushed out from their tents, forcing their way through every side at once.


Sencha the Druid については,英語版ウィキペディアに以下の人物が載っています。 


・ere /r/ は before の古い言い方であり,long ere... = long before... です。air「空気」と同じ発音です。

King Conor gave command, “Bid them to halt until the word be given.” And all the host stood silent where they were, gazing toward the summit of the hill whereon the bearded Druid stood erect.
At length in the dim east the sun arose, its first rays shooting up along the sky. Then to his full height Sencha arose and raised his arms on high, his snowy garments waving in the wind.

“The moment of good-luck is come,” he cried. “Let Ulster’s heroes meet their enemies! Let Macha’s king arise!”



「時は来ませり」彼は叫んだ。「アルスターの勇者達よ,敵にまみえよ! マハの王を援けるのじゃ!」


Then with their weapons brandished in their hands, and with a horrid whoop of war, the men of Ulster rushed into the fight. The men of Erin arose on every side, and furiously and fiercely was the battle joined. From dawn to noon the conflict raged, now here, now there, across the plain of Meath. At length Meave said, “Call Fergus to me. I would send him to the fight”; for Fergus had remained behind, among Meave’s bodyguard, for loth he was to lift his hand against the men of his own province.




“It is the part of a true hero, O Fergus,” said Meave, deriding him, “to remain behind within the tents when a conflict to the death is going forward. Many good things, our hospitality and love, you took from our hand when Ulster exiled you. We fed and clothed your troops, we offered you a home. For many years you lingered in our land, wanting neither for wealth or honour while you were with us; now when the moment of our peril comes, when in your cause we come to fight with Ulster, to restore yourself and all the exiles to their homes, ’tis Fergus lags behind. The common men and chiefs may die, you say, so I remain in peace among the tents. Now I myself, Queen Meave, descend into the fray; in my own person I will lead my troops, like any valiant captain of my host. I go to seek out Conor, who supplanted Fergus on the throne; will Fergus stay behind?”



’tis Fergus lags behind を分かりやすき書き直せば,It is Fergus (who) lags behind です。It is... that 〜 の強調構文であり,「後ろでグズグズしているのはフェルグスだ」です。It is... that 〜 の強調構文,It is... who 〜 の強調構文では,that や who を主格であっても省略できます。このことは現代英語でも起こりえます。

supplant... は「……に取って代わる(take the place of...)」です。

When Fergus heard of Conor he exclaimed, “My hand I will not lift against the chiefs of Ulster, who are all my friends; but against Conor will I lift my hand, the wily, bad, supplanting king who stands where I should stand. By all my gods I swear, had I but my own sword, the mighty ‘Hard One’ whose blade is like a beam, or like a rainbow stretched across the sky, I now would ply it upon Conor’s shield. Fetch me my sword!”


ウィキペディアによるとカラドボルグは「硬き刃」といった意味です。よって Hard One とはカラドボルグのことでしょう。


Then Ailill commanded that the sword of Fergus, called the Calad-cholg, or the ‘Hard-sword,’ brought by Mac Leda out of fairy-land, should be given to him, for he had hidden it, until the time should come. So Fergus’ sword was brought, and Ailill put it into Fergus’ hand; and with a shout of welcome, Fergus grasped his sword, huge-handled, double-bladed, terrible; so that no hand but Fergus’ hand could hold it in its grasp. “Welcome, Calad-cholg; welcome, O Leda’s sword! Woe to the fosterling of war who feels thy edge to-day! On whom now shall we try thy might?”

するとアリルは,カラド・ボルグ,「硬い剣」と呼ばれたフェルグスの剣,幽世からマク・レーダが取ってきたあの剣を,フェルグスに渡すよう命令した。というのもアリルは時が来るまで剣を隠していたのだ。それでフェルグスの剣が運び込まれ,アリルは剣をフェルグスに手渡した。そしてフェルグスは歓迎の叫びを上げて剣を掴んだ。巨大な柄で,両刃で,恐ろしい剣だった。それでフェルグスの手しか握れなかったものだ。「おかえり,カラド・ボルグよおかえり,レーダの剣よ! 今日汝の刃を喰らう戦の里子に災いあれ! さあ汝の力を誰に試そう?」

Mac Ledaフェルグス・マク・レーティ,マク・レーダ)は伝説的なアルスターの王で,英語版の記事があります。彼が幽世(妖精の国)でカラドボルグを入手し,アルスター前王のフェルグス・マク・ロイヒの手に渡り,一旦アリルの手に渡ったものの,この際フェルグスに返却されました。


“Upon the host that rings us round, O Fergus,” said the Queen; “none shall turn back in peace before thy sword, none may it spare, save only some dear friend of other days.”
Then into the battle-field, standing erect within her chariot, with all her champions round her as she rode, went queenly Meave, her golden circlet on her head, her weapons in her hand. On either side, holding aloft their swords, rode Ailill and Fergus, each with his own bodyguard. Terrific was their onset and before their chosen men, rushing like winds of March into the fray, Ulster gave way and fled.

「我々を取り囲む軍に対してじゃ,フェルグスよ」とメーヴは言った。「汝の剣を前にして平穏に帰れる者はおらぬな。その剣は何者も逃しはせぬ。かつての親友を除いては」 そして女王メーヴは戦場へ,戦車の中で直立して,彼女が進む周りを勇者たちが取り囲みながら,進軍した。頭には金の宝冠を被り,手に武器を取って。その両側には,剣を高く掲げながら,それぞれが護衛を引き連れてアリルとフェルグスが進んだ。彼らの初動は物凄いもので,3月の風の如く疾走する選りすぐりの兵らの前に,アルスター勢は屈して逃げ惑った。

ring の動詞用法は「輪になる,取り囲む」といった意味があります。


Three times they led their men into the very centre of the host, scattering it right and left, till Conor cried: “Who is this foe, who, three times to the North has scattered all mine host?” “Fergus it is and Meave,” they all reply; “furiously they cut their way across the clans, who fly before them as they come.” Now by the rules of Ulster’s warfare, the king might never expose his person in battle, but only, from some post of vantage, watch the onset of his men. But now King Conor said, “Hold you this hill, I will myself go down and rally to their duty the flying hosts of Ulster.” And when they found the king determined to go down, with one mouth his bodyguard replied, “Unless the earth should burst beneath our feet, or the blue sky fall on us from above, we steadfastly will hold this post for you, O King.”

3度彼らは兵達を敵軍の真っ只中に押し込み,敵軍を右往左往させ,遂にコノールは叫んだ。「この敵は何者だ,我が軍を3度も北に追い散らしたこの軍は?」 「フェルグスとメーヴです」皆が答えた。「凄い勢いで諸族の間に斬り込んで,彼らが進むと諸族は退きました」 ところでアルスターの戦争法規では,有利な位置から兵等を観察する時を除いて,王は自らの身を敵に晒してはならなかった。しかし今やコノール王は言った。「この丘を守れ,余自ら降りて,敗走するアルスターの軍勢を再結集させる」 そして王の降りる決心が固いことを知ると,異口同音に護衛が叫んだ。「王よ,足元で地面が爆発せぬ限り,或いは青空が頭上から落ちて来ぬ限り,しっかりとこの持ち場をお守りします」


・rally は「結集する,結集させる」の意味があります。rally to their duty the flying hosts of Ulster は目的語が to their duty の後ろに回されており,rally the flying hosts of Ulster to their duty で,「逃げ惑うアルスター軍(the flying hosts of Ulster)を義務=戦列に(to their duty)復帰させる(rally)」ということです。 

Then round the king a body of his bravest warriors locked their shields, and made a rampart; thus the king went down into the battle with his followers around him, he himself holding his mighty horned shield, the Ochain, in the midst. For they knew that if the king should fall, the men of Ulster would, as one man, take to flight.



Fergus was seeking everywhere throughout the host for the king of Ulster, and when he saw the linked shields of Ulster’s greatest champions he knew that the king was in their midst. He made a mighty onslaught on the rampart of shields, and broke through it, scattering the chiefs to right and left. Then he approached the king, and with his ‘Hard-Sword’ smote three mighty blows on Conor’s shield. And the shield screamed aloud and roared, as was its wont when Conor was in peril or distress; and when the warriors of his host heard the screaming of the shield, all their weapons echoed in reply, and the shields that hung on the walls of Emain Macha fell down flat upon the ground.





Far off, where he lay, Cuchulain heard the sound. “Surely,” he cried, “I hear the shield of Conor roar; some deadly peril must beset the king, and I lie here alive and help him not! Set free my bonds, or, on my word, I will break loose from them!” Then with a mighty effort, putting forth all his strength, Cuchulain wrenched his bonds, breaking and scattering them; and when he saw that nothing would avail to hinder him, Laeg cut the cords, and with one cry, the hero sprang upon his feet. “My weapons and my war-chariot,” he cried, and Laeg brought out his chariot, sorely broken as it was after the fight with Ferdia at the ford. In it he fixed the iron spikes and points and nails that strengthened it in time of war, and made men fear to approach too near; into its wheels, on either side, the sweeping scythes were fastened that mowed the enemy like grass as it swept through the host.

遠く離れた所,横になっている所で,クー・フーリンはその音を聞いた。「きっと」彼は叫んだ。「コノールの盾が吠えているんだ。命の危機が王を襲っているに違いない。なのに僕はここに生きたまま寝そべって彼を助けないとは! 縛めを解いてくれ,さもないと誓って,これを打ち破るぞ!」 それから物凄い努力で全力を絞り,クー・フーリンは縛めを捻じり,それらを壊しばらばらにした。そして何物も彼を妨げられないと見ると,ロイグは綱を切った。そして一声挙げ,英雄は立ち上がった。「僕の武器と戦車を」と彼は叫び,ロイグは戦車を出してきた。浅瀬でのフェルディアとの戦いの後のまま,ひどく壊れていたが。彼はそれに,戦のあいだ強化するとともに,人が恐れて近づぬようにするための鉄の犬釘やら釘やらを打ち付けた。両側の車輪には素早く動く大鎌が固定された。軍勢の間を疾走するとともに草のように敵兵を刈り取るものだった。


The Grey of Macha and the Black Steed of the Glen neighed loudly, and came whinnying to Laeg’s call, and slowly Cuchulain’s old strength returned to him again. He sprang into the seat, and with a noise like thunder dashed onward to the place whence came the tumult of King Conor’s shield. Standing erect, it was as though a light streamed from his hair, rising up toward the heavens; while on either hand the sods flew from the chariot-wheels, making the air dark about him as he came. His own corps perceived him coming through the host, and loud their shout of welcome rose, and all the men of Ulster sent forth a cry of exultation and of joy. Even the enemy held his hand awhile, and Fergus himself fell back before the king.


fall back は「後ろに倒れる」の意味も当然ありますが,ここでは「後退する,後ずさりする」です。

“Away with you, my Master Fergus,” Cuchulain cried, “turn about, and begone; dare not to strike King Conor’s shield.” But Fergus answered not, until a third time Cuchulain cried. And then he said, “Who is this, of Ulster’s host, who dares to address me in strong warrior words?”

「下がり給えフェルグス父さん」クー・フーリンは叫んだ。「回れ右をして去れ。コノールの盾を打ち据えるなかれ」 しかしフェルグスは答えず,遂にクー・フーリンは3度目の叫び声を上げた。それで彼は言った。「一体アルスター軍の誰が,強い戦言葉で我に語りかけるのだ?」

“’Tis even I, thy foster-son, Cuchulain, son of Sualtach, loved of the great god Lugh! Dost thou not remember, Fergus, how thou didst promise that what time I should be wounded in the fight thou wouldst turn and make as though to flee before me, so that the host of Erin should follow after thee? The time is come, turn now and flee, or else stand fast and try thy strength with mine.”
“I promised that, indeed,” said he, “and truly I will now fulfil my words. Not fit or strong enough art thou at this time to contend with me. Stand back awhile, and I will make as though I fled before thy onset.”

「私ですよ,貴方の養子クー・フーリン・マク・スアルタム,偉大なるルーに愛されし子! 私に約束したのを覚えていませんか,フェルグスよ,私が戦に傷ついている時,貴方は回れ右をして私の前から逃げるふりをし,それでエリンの軍勢も貴方に続いて逃げると。その時は来ました。振り返ってお逃げなさい。さもなければ立ち止まって貴方の力を私に試すといい」


make as though to-V や make as though S V は現代英語では make believe S V「SVするふりをする」が普通ですね。

Then Fergus turned, and fell back three full warrior-paces before Cuchulain, as if he fled before him, trailing his mighty sword behind him on the ground. And when the host of Meave saw Fergus turn, they thought that all was lost, and with one consent they turned about and fled.



Breaking their ranks, in wild disorder they streamed westward o’er the plain, each man making for his home. On every side they cast away their arms, so that the ground was strewn with shields and spears, and vainly Meave and Ailill called on them to turn. Seeing the rout, the men of Ulster followed hard, pressing upon their rear, and cutting off a multitude of men. From noon till twilight’s fall they fled, nor halted till they reached the Shannon’s ford, to pass across it and regain their homes. And, haughtily and undauntedly, Cuchulain pursued the host, making a red rout of the flying men, so that the way was strewn with dying and with dead.


Close at his side, urging on his withered steeds, rode aged Iliach, Ulster’s valiant chief. Old and beyond the fighting-age was he, yet, when the muster of the corps was made, he would not stay behind. “Bring me my chariot and my steeds,” said he. Now many years had passed since last the old man went into the field. Rusted and broken was his chariot, his weapons bent and worn; as to his ancient chariot-steeds, they were but lean and wasted beasts, long since turned out to grass. No cushions had the chariot, nor any seat at all; just as it was the steeds were harnessed to the metal frame, and in his hand he took his blunt and rusty spears. All round him on the chariot-floor were piled up flags and rocks and stones; with these, when his old worn-out weapons broke in twain, he plied and mightily discomfited the enemy.



turned out to grass turn O out to grass「Oを(引退させ)放牧する」の受け身です。

Yet, as he stood erect, his white hair streaming on the wind, so strange and formidable was his look, so flashing was his eye, that all the men of Erin shrank before him as he passed. At length his vigour ebbed, his strength gave out, the handle of his sword dropped useless from his hand. He called upon his charioteer. “My work is done,” he said, “take thou my head from me upon my chariot’s rim; I would not fall into the enemy’s hand. My honour and the honour of my country is avenged. I die content.” Then with his own old sword, upon the side-edge of the chariot his charioteer hewed off his head. Cuchulain turned and saw what had been done. “Bear thou the head to Emain,” said he, “and let his body be buried with all honour near his home. Iliach died as a hero should. So die all Ulster’s heroes, avenging Ulster’s honour on her foes.”

それでも,彼が直立すると,彼の白髮は風に靡き,彼の形相は奇妙で恐ろしげであり,彼の目は光っていたので,エリンの兵達はみな彼が通ると尻込みした。遂に彼の活力は弱まり,力は尽き,剣の柄は使い物にならなくなって手から落ちた。彼は御者に呼びかけた。「俺の仕事は済んだ」彼は言った。「俺の首を取って戦車の端に着けよ。俺は敵の手には落ちない。俺の名誉と国の名誉は報いられた。満足して死ぬ」 それから彼自身の古い剣で,戦車の端で,御者が彼の首を斬った。クー・フーリンは振り返ってなされていることを見ていた。「首をエヴァンに持ち帰って」彼は言った。「体はあらゆる敬意を払って彼の家の近くに埋めるんだ。イリアハは英雄の如く死んだ。アルスターの全ての英雄はそのように死ぬんだ。アルスターの敵に対し,その名誉を晴らしてね」




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