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三国志で英語のお勉強12: 孫堅(孫文台)



孫堅は Sun Jian,孫権は Sun Quan,孫乾は Sun Qian

孫堅(Sun Jian,孫文台,Sun Wentai,155年-191/192年)

Sun Jian was born in Fuchun County (富春縣), Wu Connandery, around present day Fuyang, Zhejiang. He was allegedly a descendant of Sun Tzu, the author of The Art of War...



Sun Jian was a civil official in his home county during his youth. When he was 16, Sun Jian travelled with his father to Qiantang, where they encountered a band of pirates dividing up their spoils on land. Sun Jian jumped on shore with a sabre in hand and pointed in different directions as if commanding a detachment of soldiers to surround the pirates. Seeing this, the pirates were deceived and fled. Sun Jian pursued, and only after taking the head of every pirate did he return (or just the leaders according to some accounts). His name henceforth spread.


・county は一般に「郡」と訳されますが三国志(もしかすると中国史)では「県」の訳です。これは日本では県の下に郡があるのに対し,中国では郡の下に県があるのと関係していそうです。現代中国では地級市(例えば保定市)の下に県(曲陽県)や県級市(涿州市)があります。

・「遭遇する,遭遇」は encounter であって encount ではありません。encount という英単語はありません。


・この as if commanding は as if (he were) commanding と考えましょう。一応 as if to-V「まるで V するかのように」という表現もあります。

・only after...「……(の後)になって初めて」という表現が did he return という倒置を引き起こしています。


In 184, the Yellow Turban Rebellion led by Zhang Jiao broke out across the country. Sun Jian joined the general Zhu Jun to quell the rebellion in Yu Province (covering roughly present-day southern Henan and northern Anhui). The soldiers fought hard, forcing the rebels to retreat to Wan (宛; present-day Wancheng District, Nanyang, Henan). Sun Jian placed himself in the forefront and climbed onto the city walls alone. The rest then swarmed in and defeated the rebels.




...his (=Dong Zhuo's) tyrannical ways incurred the wrath of many and in the following year, warlords from eastern China formed a coalition against him. Sun Jian also raised an army and joined Yuan Shu, one of the leaders of the coalition at Luyang (魯陽; present-day Lushan County, Henan).



On his way, he killed Inspector of Jing Province Wang Rui and Administrator of Nanyang Zhang Zi. Yuan Shu appointed Sun Jian as General Who Destroys Barbarians (破虜將軍, also translated as "General Who Smashes the Caitiffs") and Inspector of Yu Province (豫州刺史). Sun Jian then began training and preparing his troops at Luyang. A force sent by Dong Zhuo was so impressed with the strict discipline of Sun Jian's troops that they gave up the plan to attack Luyang. When Sun Jian moved out to Liangdong (梁東; east of present-day Linru County, Henan), he was outnumbered by Dong Zhuo's forces. With several dozen horsemen, Sun Jian broke out of the encirclement. He took off the red felt scarf he had always been wearing and handed it to his trusted aide Zu Mao (祖茂), whom Dong Zhuo's soldiers then chased after while Sun Jian escaped. Unable to shake off his pursuers, Zu Mao then dismounted, hung the scarf onto a half-burnt pillar, and hid himself in the tall grass nearby. The enemies surrounded the pillar and approached cautiously till they realised they had been fooled, whereupon they retreated.



・「破虜将軍」の「虜」を訳すのに barbarians「蛮族」や caitiffs「卑怯者」が使われているのが面白いですね。

・outnumber... は「……に数で勝る」という意味ですので,

 A outnumbered B.「A は B に数で勝った」

→B was outnumbered by A.「B は A に数で劣った」です。


・aid は「援助」ですが aide は「側近」です。このあと祖茂がどうなったかは正史に記録されていません。演義羅貫中孫堅と祖茂を追いかけたのを華雄とし,祖茂が草むらから華雄に斬りかかると華雄が返り討ちにしたことにしています。それは,黄蓋韓当・程普といった孫堅の他の側近と違って,祖茂のそれ以降の活躍も記録されていないからでしょう。


After regrouping his troops, Sun Jian pressed his troops towards Luoyang and engaged in battle against Dong Zhuo's forces at Yangren (陽人). He scored a brilliant victory and killed the enemy commander Hua Xiong in battle (191). At this time, someone told Yuan Shu that if Sun Jian defeated Dong Zhuo and took over Luoyang, he would no longer submit to anyone. Feeling doubtful, Yuan Shu stopped providing food supplies to Sun Jian's army. Sun Jian rode the hundred odd li from Yangren to Luyang overnight to see Yuan Shu, whereupon he told the latter, "I put myself in danger during battle, firstly to eliminate the villain (Dong Zhuo) for the Han Empire, and secondly to avenge the deaths of your family members. I have no personal grudge against Dong Zhuo. Yet you believe slanderous talks and suspect me!" The words put Yuan Shu to shame and he immediately ordered his men to continue delivering food supplies to Sun Jian's army.

孫堅は軍を再編成した後,軍を魯陽に向け,陽人で董卓軍と遭遇しました。彼は見事な勝利を収め,敵の司令官華雄を討ち取りました(191年)。この時誰かが袁術に,もし孫堅董卓を負かして洛陽を取ったら,誰にも従わ(submit to)なくなるだろうと言いました。疑いを抱き,袁術孫堅軍に食糧を供給するのを止めました。孫堅は夜を徹して(overnight)陽人から魯陽まで百里を駆けて袁術に会いに行き,「私は第一に悪党を漢帝国から取り除くため,第二に貴方の親族の仇を取るために戦いの間自らを危険に晒している。私は董卓に個人的な恨み(grudge)はない。しかし貴方は中傷を信じ私に疑惑を抱くのか」と言いました。これを聞き袁術は恥じ入って直ちに孫堅軍へ食糧を供給するよう命じました。


・put 人 to shame は「人を恥じ入らせる」です。


Fearing Sun Jian, Dong Zhuo then sent his general Li Jue as an emissary to seek peace and propose a marriage to cement the alliance. However, Sun Jian rejected the proposals with harsh words and continued to lead his troops towards Luoyang. In late 190, his army was merely 90 li away from the capital when Dong Zhuo retreated west to Chang'an after ordering the destruction of Luoyang by fire. Entering the ruins of Luoyang, Sun Jian ordered his men to reseal the tombs of Han emperors that were excavated by Dong Zhuo, after which he returned to Luyang. It was said in the Book of Wu (吳書) by Wei Zhao that Sun Jian found one of the emperor's jade seals in a well south of Luoyang and kept it. Later, when Yuan Shu declared himself emperor, he held Sun Jian's wife Lady Wu hostage in exchange for the seal.




In 191, Yuan Shu sent Sun Jian to attack Liu Biao, the Governor of Jing Province (荆州; covering present-day Hubei and Hunan). He defeated Liu Biao's forces led by Huang Zu and pursued the enemy across the Han River to Xiangyang. While he was travelling alone through Xianshan (峴山), Huang Zu's troops ambushed him and shot him to death with arrows. The Record of Heroes (英雄記) by Wang Can, however, claims that Sun Jian died in 193 and that he was crushed to death by boulders while pursuing the enemy commander Lü Gong (呂公). Sun Jian's nephew, Sun Ben, gathered his uncle's troops and returned to Yuan Shu, who then appointed him as the Inspector of Yu Province to replace his uncle.

191年,袁術荊州(現代の湖北省湖南省)の刺史劉表孫堅が殺した王叡の後任)を攻めさせるため孫堅を派遣しました。彼は黄祖が率いる劉表軍を破り,漢江を渡って襄陽まで敵軍を追撃しました。一人で峴山を移動している時,黄祖の軍の伏兵が彼を矢で射殺しました。しかし王粲の英雄記は孫堅が193年に死んだと主張し(claim that),彼は呂公を追撃している時に巨岩(boulder)で押し潰されたとしています。孫堅の甥孫賁が叔父の軍をまとめ袁術の下に帰還し,袁術孫賁を叔父に代わって予州刺史に任命しました。






Sun Jian was buried in the Gao Mausoleum in Qu'e (曲阿). He was survived by at least five sons and three daughters. His eldest son, Sun Ce, became a warlord and conquered several territories in the Jiangdong region. Like his father, Sun Ce died at a relatively young age and was succeeded by his younger brother, Sun Quan. Sun Quan built on his brother's legacy and eventually established the state of Eastern Wu in 229, with himself as its founding emperor, during the Three Kingdoms period. Lady Sun later married the warlord and founder of the state of Shu Han, Liu Bei, in an attempt to forge an alliance to defeat Cao Cao after the Battle of Red Cliff. After ascending the throne, Sun Quan honoured his father with the posthumous title "Emperor Wulie" (武烈皇帝).


・mausoleum は「霊廟,陵(みささぎ)」です。

・build on は「建て増しする」という意味もありますがここは「立脚する,足掛かりにする,頼る」でしょう。