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三国志で英語のお勉強11: 蔡邕(蔡伯喈)



蔡邕(Cai Yong,蔡伯喈,Cai Bojie,132/133年-192年6月)

Cài Yōng... was Chinese astronomer, calligrapher, historian, mathematician, musician, politician, and writer of the Eastern Han dynasty... One of his daughters, Cai Yan / Cai Wenji, was also a famous poet and musician.




Cai Yong was born in a substantial local family in Yu County (圉縣), Chenliu Commandery (陳留郡), which is around present-day Qi County, Kaifeng, Henan...  When his father Cai Leng (蔡棱) died, Cai Yong lived with his uncle Cai Zhi (蔡質) while taking great care for his own mother for her last three years. When she died, Cai Yong became known for his arrangement of his mother's tomb. After that, Cai Yong studied composition, mathematics, astronomy, pitch-pipes and music under Hu Guang (胡廣), one of the highest-ranking officials in the Han imperial court.




In the early 160s, Cai Yong was recommended to Emperor Huan (r.  146–168) by the senior eunuchs for his skill with the drums and the guqin. On his way to the capital, Cai Yong feigned illness to return home to study in seclusion. Ten years later in the early 170s, Cai Yong served as a clerk under the official Qiao Xuan, who greatly admired his abilities. Afterwards, Cai Yong served as a county magistrate and then a Consultant in the capital, in charge of editing and collating the text in the library. Known for his literary skills, he was constantly commissioned to write eulogies, memorial inscriptions, and the like.




In 175, in fear of parties trying to alter the Confucian classics to support their views, Cai Yong and a group of scholars petitioned to have the Five Classics engraved in stone. Emperor Ling (r.  168–189) approved, and the result was the Xiping Stone Classics (熹平石經), completed in 183, which set the canon for future generations of scholars.

175年,様々な立場の者たち(parties)が自分の意見を支持するように孔子の教典(the Confucian classics)を改変しようとしていることを心配し,蔡邕と学者の集団は五経を石に刻印することを請願し(petition)ました。霊帝(在位168-189年)は承認し,その結果が熹平石経(きへいせきけい)で,183年に完成し,後世の世代の学者にとっての正典(canon)となりました。

・「立場の者」の party は,例えば the third party「第三者(=第三の立場の者)」と言う時の party です。

孔子は英語で Confucius(カンフューシャス)と言われます。




Throughout his political career, he was an advocate of restoring ceremonial practices and often criticised against the eunuchs' influence in politics. He was successful in persuading the emperor to participate in a ritual in the winter of 177 through his memorials, but his attacks on the eunuchs were not so successful.


・through his memorials「その記録を通じて」というのは自信がありませんが,恐らく過去の記録を調べ,「かつて〇〇という皇帝がこんな儀式をやられていましたよ。だから霊帝様もやるべきでしょう」とか言ったのかなと思います。儀礼を重んじるというのが儒者らしいですね。


In the autumn of 178, the scholars were asked for advice on recent ill omens. Cai Yong responded with criticisms of eunuch pretensions. The eunuchs learnt of the attack, and accused Cai Yong and his uncle Cai Zhi of extortion. They were thrown into prison and sentenced to death, but the sentence was later remitted to exile in the northern frontiers. Nine months later, he... was allowed back to the capital. However, he offended the sibling of an influential eunuch... Cai Yong fled south to Wu () and Kuaiji commanderies and stayed there for 12 years.

178年秋,学者たちは最近の凶兆(ill omen)について助言を求められました。蔡邕は宦官が威張っていることへの批判で反応しました。宦官達は批判のことを聞き知り,蔡邕とおじの蔡質をゆすり(extortion)の罪で告発しました。二人は投獄され死刑を宣告されましたが,判決は後に北方辺境への追放(exile)に減免されました。九か月後彼は……都に戻ることを許されました。しかし彼は有力な宦官の兄弟(sibling)を怒らせました。蔡邕は呉郡,会稽郡に逃亡しそこで12年留まりました。

・extortion「強要,ゆすり」は "ex"「外に」+"tort"「ねじる,ひねる」で「ねじって出す」といった成り立ちです。

exile は "e" に強勢があり「グザイル,クサイル」です。×「イグイル」のように読まないようにしましょう。

・sibling は男女の区別を付けず「きょうだい」という意味ですが,さすがに男だろうと言うことで「兄弟」と訳しました。




When the warlord Dong Zhuo came to power in 189 and controlled the central government, he summoned Cai Yong back to the imperial capital Luoyang. At first Cai Yong was unwilling, but Dong Zhuo enforced his demand with the threat "I can eliminate whole clans"... Under Dong Zhuo, Cai Yong... became in charge of revising rituals for Dong Zhuo's new government. Despite Dong Zhuo's admiration of Cai Yong as a scholar and musician, Cai Yong worried about Dong Zhuo's temper and once considered to return home, but was persuaded that he was too well known to escape.




In May 192, when Dong Zhuo was killed in a plot by Wang Yun, Cai Yong was put into prison and sentenced to death for allegedly expressing grief at Dong Zhuo's death. Cai Yong and other government officials pleaded with Wang Yun to allow him to finish his work on the history of Han, but Wang Yun denied them, saying:



"In ancient times Emperor Wu failed to kill Sima Qian, and so allowed him to write a book of slander which was passed down to later times. Particularly at this time, as the fortunes of the Emperor are in decline..., we cannot allow a treacherous minister to hold his brush..."



It was said that Wang Yun eventually regretted this decision, but Cai Yong had already died in prison. After his death, pictures were set up in his honour, and commemorative eulogies were composed throughout Chenliu Commandery and Yan Province.